学术性阅读:语言与思维中国大学mooc完整答案-买球的app软件下载

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    lesson 1 language and thought

    language and thought

    1、what are the 6 levels of bridging language and thought?

    2、what are the two approaches of thinking?

    lesson 2 stereotyping

    stereotyping

    1、never in my craziest dream had i imagined that i would be the kingship of the land of beauty.
        a、accorded
        b、accorded to
        c、in according to
        d、in accord with

    2、all the injured were carried away, leaving only blood everywhere.
        a、marks
        b、stains
        c、streaks
        d、specks

    3、when we say someone is a bigot, we mean that .
        a、he likes to show off
        b、he is like a brother to us
        c、his grade or ability is excellent and we admire him
        d、he will not listen to or accept the opinions of anyone who disagres

    4、“not to say being labeled intelligent isn’t flattering, because it is, or not to deny that basking in the limelight of being top of my class isn’t ego-boosting, because frankly it is.” what does the sentence mean?
        a、i don't want to be labled intelligent and bask in the limelight of being top of my class.
        b、someone says being labeled intelligent is flattering and basking in the limelight of being top of class is ego-boosting.
        c、it's flattering to be thought of as intelligent and it is ego-boosting for me to enjoy the feeling of being top of my class.
        d、asians are always labeled intelligent and in the limelight of being top of class.

    5、“yet an asian student who socializes only with whites is called a ‘twinkie’, one who is yellow on the outside but white on the inside.” which of the following best explains the sentence?
        a、an asian student who only socializes with white people looks like a twinkie.
        b、an asian student who only socializes with the white is thought of as yellow-skinned person with 'white' behavior and personality.
        c、an asian student who only socializes with the white usually wears a yellow jacket and white underwear.
        d、an asian student who only socializes with whites likes eating twinkies.

    6、an ethnic group is a ______ group of people within a country.
        a、distinctive
        b、distinct
        c、distinguished
        d、distinguishable

    7、which kind of person shown below can be described as condescending?
        a、sheldon is very proud of his intelligence.
        b、max has sharp tongue and always prevails over others verbally.
        c、francis works out an ambitious scheme to push for the presidency.
        d、mr. darcy loves elizabeth but as a nobleman he looks down on her rural family.

    8、according to “stereotyping”, which is not the characteristic of a prejudice?
        a、a prejudice is based on real or imagined differences between groups.
        b、a prejudice is generalized to all members of a target group.
        c、a prejudice attaches values to differences in ways that benefit the dominant group at the expense of minorities.
        d、all prejudice result in discrimination.

    9、“their music intermingles traditional and modern styles.” which word below can be a substitute for the underlined word?
        a、blends
        b、distinguishes
        c、interacts
        d、blurs

    10、“we all hold misleading stereotypes of people that limit us as individuals in that we cheat ourselves out of the benefits different cultures can contribute.” 黑体部分的理解是 “我们欺骗自己,使自己失去了不同文化所能带来的好处。”

    responding to reading

    1、what are the two examples used in the text to explain the influence of stereotyping on individuals?

    lesson 3 in the barrio

    in the barrio

    1、the practice of reform and opening-up over the past forty years has shown that openness brings progress, while ____________ leads to backwardness.
        a、separation
        b、seclusion
        c、isolation
        d、regression

    2、hong kong has not only freed itself from colonizers' ____________ but also witnessed long-term prosperity and development.
        a、depression
        b、compression
        c、oppression
        d、repression

    3、the designated clinics are to help quickly ________ coronavirus patients, while the quarantine centers can keep the close contacts of infected people isolated from the community, reducing the risk of cross-infection.
        a、identify
        b、segregate
        c、concentrate
        d、separate

    4、chinese society should _________ the thoughts of different schools including confucianism, taoism and legalism, in order to meet all kinds of challenges with vitality.
        a、fuse
        b、digest
        c、reconcile
        d、assimilate

    5、what’s the meaning of “hate one’s guts”?
        a、讨厌某人的大肚子
        b、憎恨某人的毅力
        c、对某人恨之入骨
        d、讨厌某人的智慧

    6、what’s the meaning of “sissy”?
        a、温柔的人
        b、男子汉
        c、优柔寡断的人
        d、男性化的女性

    7、he was always looking for a ______ to fame and fortune.
        a、assimilation
        b、shortcut
        c、macho
        d、segregation

    8、what were the benefits of living in the barrio?
        a、the barrio taught me to how to survive in the uncertain world.
        b、the barrio taught me to be strong when there was crisis.
        c、the barrio taught me to believe in myself.
        d、the barrio prepared me for the struggles of daily life and the unexpected.

    9、according to the article, how did stereotypes shape life in amelia valdez’s barrio
        a、young people were forced to join a gang and fought with other gangs.
        b、if interested in study, people would be considered as timid and indecisive.
        c、the barrio made people living in it feel safe and happy.
        d、chicanos didn’t develop many skills because they needn’t compete for jobs.

    10、despite all the disadvantages of living in the barrio, the amelia valdez still considered it more a positive than a negative experience

    self-identification

    1、the author said, "the barrio always made me feel safe, but sometimes i felt the anger of being trapped." she was confused with her identity in a period, but her attitude changed with time. what is her attitudes towards her identity at the end of the text? please use at least 4 sentences in the text to answer the question.

    lesson 4 a rose for emily

    a rose for emily

    1、but garages and cotton gins had _______ and obliterated even the august names of that neighborhood.
        a、enclosed
        b、encompassed
        c、encroached
        d、encountered

    2、it was another link between the gross, teeming world and the high and mighty griersons. what’s the meaning of the underlined word?
        a、dirty
        b、poor
        c、vulgar
        d、crowded

    3、so she vanquished them, horse and foot, just as she had vanquished their fathers thirty years before about the smell. what’s the meaning of the underlined phrase?
        a、completely
        b、powerfully
        c、suddenly
        d、difficultly

    4、“just as if a man--any man--could keep a kitchen properly,” the ladies said; so they were not surprised when the smell developed. it was another link between the gross, teeming world and the high and mighty griersons. what does “it” refer to in the sentence?
        a、they were not surprised when the smell developed
        b、the smell
        c、a man could keep a kitchen properly
        d、no particular reference

    5、“so we were not surprised when homer barron--the streets had been finished some time since--was gone.” what rhetoric device is used in this sentence?
        a、metaphor
        b、personification
        c、simile
        d、pun

    6、at last the ladies forced the baptist minister--miss emily's people were episcopal-- to call upon her. he would never __________ what happened during that interview, but he refused to go back again.
        a、circumvent
        b、divulge
        c、thwart
        d、reaffirm

    7、“when miss emily grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral: the men through a sort of respectful affection for a fallen monument, the women mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her house, which no one save an old man-servant--a combined gardener and cook--had seen in at least ten years.” what can we infer from this sentence?
        a、miss emily was respected in the town.
        b、miss emily was considered as a symbol of the former southern aristocrats.
        c、miss emily was a fallen monument.
        d、the women were curious about emily’s old man-servant.

    8、which statements in the following are true about homer barron?
        a、he was a northerner.
        b、he was a foreman.
        c、he wanted to marry miss emily.
        d、he was killed by the servant.

    9、in 1894, colonel sartoris, the mayor, remitted miss emily’s taxes as a charity for her. is it true or false?

    10、miss emily was a murderer who not only killed her love but also kept the corpse in her house and even sometimes lay down beside the remains of the dead body.

    sequence of the plots

    1、could you please rearrange the following events according to the time when each event happened? emily cut her hair short and made herself look like a girl. the mayor received complaints about the smell from emily’s house. emily bought some poison from the druggist. a deputation visited emily for her taxes. emily gave lessons in china-painting.

    lesson 5 professions for women

    professions for women

    1、the millionaire father that guy mentioned at the party is totally _____.
        a、fictional
        b、fictitious
        c、fiction
        d、tictious

    2、their hopes of a peaceful solution turned out to be a(n) _____.
        a、dream
        b、idea
        c、illusion
        d、imagination

    3、in “the family peace was broken by the scratching of a pen.”, “the scratching of a pen” means ______.
        a、the pen is not easy to write
        b、the writing makes a lot of noise
        c、writing
        d、the paper of bad quality

    4、my excuse, if i were to ______ in a court of law, would be that i acted in self-defense.
        a、have up
        b、had up
        c、be up
        d、be had up

    5、what is the metaphorical meaning of “furnishing the room” according to the author?
        a、women have the means to secure their own rooms and pay the rent.
        b、after having their own rooms, women have no idea furnish and decorate the rooms.
        c、women have gained a position in society through great labor and effort.
        d、women cannot decide with whom they are going to share their rooms.

    6、“though i flatter myself that i killed her in the end, the struggle was severe.” in the sentence, virginia means that ________.
        a、she had a mistaken opinion of herself
        b、she was sure that she won the battle with the phantom
        c、she had not really put an end to the existence of the phantom
        d、the phantom might come back again

    7、in “professions for women,” virginia ________.
        a、talked about her personal professional experience
        b、highlighted the importance of women’s battle against the angel in the house
        c、explained that employment is not a necessary aspect in women’s life
        d、pointed out that the importance of employment for women

    8、“the angel in the house” refers to the qualities expected of women including________.
        a、charming
        b、sympathetic
        c、unselfishness
        d、caring

    9、from “an novelist’s chief desire is to be as unconscious as possible”, virginia woolf intends to illustrate when the writer is writing, he/she should forget the self, becoming immersed in the work so that nothing interrupts the creative process.

    10、woolf uses the metaphor of the fisherman in the dream to show the restriction placed on the minds of women because they were considered below men with only thoughts of trivial things.

    who are the angel in the house?

    1、virginia described “the angel in the house” in the text. could you match the 5 examples with the 5 characteristics (a-e)? please write down the letter a, b, c, d or e indicating the characteristic represented by each of the following example. a. sacrificing b. interruptive c. imperishable d. deceptive e. pure “her purity was supposed to be her chief beauty—her blushes, her great grace.” “i made one pound ten and six by my first review; and i bought a persian cat with the proceeds.” “if there was chicken, she took the leg; if there was a draft she sat in it.” “she was always creeping back when i thought i had dispatched her.” “use all the art and wiles of our sex. never let anybody guess that you have a mind of your own.”

    lesson 6 why diversity matters?

    why diversity matters: the importance of racial and ethnic equality in conservation

    1、what’s the purpose of the author writing this article?
        a、explain the reasons why increasing diversity matters
        b、showcase the rapid change in demographics in america
        c、stress the importance of racial equality in workplace
        d、criticize the lack of ethnic diversity in conservation

    2、what does “anonymous” mean in the sentence “funny you should say that random person that shall remain anonymous.”?
        a、having his or her name unknown
        b、hiding his or her titles or locations
        c、not showing his or her true nature
        d、hiding his or her personal information

    3、what does “gear toward” mean in the sentence “mentors, the media, communities, secondary schools, universities, and organizations geared toward outdoor activities need to work together....”?
        a、move onto
        b、adapt toward
        c、arm toward
        d、adjust from

    4、as human beings, we ________ ________ that which is comfortable, without realizing the impressions we leave, when we ignore all others.
        a、attract to
        b、appeal to
        c、tend to
        d、gravitate to

    5、what can you infer from the title of this article: “why diversity matters: the importance of racial and ethnic equality in conservation”?
        a、the writer argues the importance of racial and ethnic diversity in the article.
        b、the writer thinks whatever diversity is important in the article.
        c、the writer thinks racial and ethnic equality are important in conservation.
        d、the writer discusses the reasons why racial and ethnic equality are important.

    6、what are the reasons the author provides to argue her point that racial and ethnic diversity matter?
        a、more people of color than whites live in america.
        b、the rapid change in american demographics
        c、all employees in national parks are whites.
        d、the lack of racial and ethnic diversity in conservation

    7、what types of evidence does the author use in the article?
        a、examples
        b、figures and diagrams
        c、quotations from authorities
        d、tables and tabulates

    8、the author agrees with the viewpoint that nobody cares about “bringing different races and ethnicities into the national parks.”

    9、according to the article, hispanic or latino is a cultural identity or ethnicity, and can include people of any race.

    10、the author holds that the recent population growth trend was not reflected in the visitation of racial and ethnic minorities of u. s. national parks.

    how to increase racial diversity in the national parks?

    1、1. in what way is it important to employ people of different racial and ethnic background to the national parks? can you find a sentence in the text to answer the question?

    2、2. who should take the responsibility to increase diversity in the national parks?

    lesson 7 racial diversity in the oscars

    how racially skewed are the oscars?

    1、according the text, the oscars and the film industry failed to represent america’s ________, which triggered #oscarssowhite.
        a、racial diversity
        b、racial equality
        c、gender equality
        d、gender diversity

    2、“fingers are pointing at the academy’s 6,000-odd voting members”, the author indicates that people are ________ the fact that most of the voting members are white.
        a、noticing
        b、blaming
        c、emphasizing
        d、discussing

    3、“it is an embarrassing anachronism that the prevalence of white academy electors has been allowed to continue into the 21st century…” “the prevalence of white academy electors” means ________.
        a、the white electors played a leading role in the academy
        b、most of the electors are white
        c、it is popular to vote for the white in the academy
        d、most of the nominees are white

    4、the author uses ________ as supporting evidence in the sentence “for most of the past 15 years, the academy has largely judged what has been put in front of them: minority actors land 15% of top roles, 15% of nominations and 17% of wins.”
        a、research findings
        b、quotes
        c、figures
        d、questions

    5、spike lee, whose “do the right thing” is considered one of the great movies not to have won an oscar, has lamented “another all-white ballot.” what does “lament” in the sentence mean?
        a、to express annoyance
        b、to express sadness
        c、to express excitement
        d、to express frustration

    6、what has been used as supporting evidence in the text?
        a、figures
        b、numbers
        c、research studies
        d、quotes

    7、an analysis of oscar selections since 2000 suggests that the imbalance affects minority groups including ________.
        a、the black
        b、hispanics
        c、asian americans
        d、the white

    8、the thesis statement of the text is “but this does not mean hollywood has no problems of prejudice. as the data show, it clearly does.”

    9、just as people want the parliament and the executive boards to reflect the ethnic diversity in the society, they want to stop the whitewashed hollywood and oscars.

    10、since the number of black actors winning oscars in this century has been pretty much in line with the size of america’s overall black population, it means hollywood has no problem of prejudice.

    arguments and supporting evidence

    1、1. if “the oscars are racially skewed” is an argument, which of the two premises can be the supporting evidence? a) in 2015, all the 20 acting nominees were white. b) in 2016, it was reported that the 94% membership of the academy of motion picture arts and sciences, who voted on the oscars slate, were white. c) in more than 90 years of the oscar history, some african american actors and actresses won academy awards. d) in 2020, the academy of motion picture arts and sciences announced a new initiative to expand diversity and inclusion within the filmmaking industry.

    2、2. to support the arguments, we may use different types of evidence including intuition, case examples, testimonials, appeal to authorities, research studies and analogies. can you identify the type of evidence in the following list? please write out the type of evidence for each sentence. a) jane did a wonderful job fixing the oil leak my car had. i strongly recommend that you take your car to jane to fix any engine problem you have. b) studies show that the lack of secure land rights can be a particular problem for many poor communities as it may act as a disincentive for smallholders to invest in managing the land more productively. c) i just have the feeling that joe biden will satisfy the pollsters and win the election. d) two young people died in car accidents yesterday because one of them was talking on a cell phone while he was driving. therefore, the use of cell phone in cars must be banned. e) there is no need to fear that the internet will lead to the disappearance of newspapers and magazines. after all, tv dinners didn’t make cooking disappear. f) according to my doctor, i should be taking antidepressant drugs to help me cope with my recent episodes of depression, and i don’t need to worry about side effects.

    lesson 8 does globalization mean we will become one culture?

    does globalization mean we will become one culture?

    1、put simply, we can pick up where others have left off, not having to re-learn our cultural knowledge each generation, as good ideas build successively upon others that came before them, or are combined with other ideas giving rise to new inventions. here, “successively” is close to the meaning of ________________.
        a、continually
        b、without failures
        c、greatly
        d、obviously

    2、there is in principle no reason to rule out a “one world” culture, and in some respects, as starbucks vividly illustrates, we are already well on the way. here, “in principle” means _____________.
        a、theoretically
        b、basically
        c、necessarily
        d、undoubtedly

    3、according to the author, what will influence cultural unification in the modern world?
        a、resources
        b、demography
        c、neither a nor b
        d、both a and b

    4、in fact, we have evolved a set of dispositions that allow us to treat other members of our tribe or society as ‘__________ relatives’, thereby unlocking a range of emotions that we would normally reserve for other family members.” according to the article, which word should be chosen?
        a、honorable
        b、honored
        c、honorary
        d、honor

    5、this must be one of the most pressing social questions we can ask because if people begin to think they have reached what we might call ‘peak standard of living’ then they will naturally become more self-interested as the returns from cooperation begin to _________ ________.
        a、leak away
        b、grade away
        c、flow away
        d、give away

    6、in more recent history, this ‘cumulative cultural adaptation’ that our capacity for culture grants has been accelerated by the rise of archiving technology. here, “archiving technology” refers to ________________.
        a、technology for arithmetic knowledge
        b、technology for adapting knowledge
        c、technology for recording knowledge
        d、technology for cultural adaptation

    7、it is going to be a __________road with many setbacks and conflicts. but if there was ever a species that could tackle these challenges it is our own.
        a、smooth
        b、dangerous
        c、bumpy
        d、tortuous

    8、according to the author, what competing tendencies comprise our tribal psychology?
        a、capacity for culture
        b、cooperation
        c、cultural unification
        d、cultural adaptation

    9、according to the author, in early human history people settled in different environments in the form of small tribes. is it true or false?

    10、according to the article, the dominant demographic trend of the next century will be the movement of people from richer to poorer regions of the world. is it true or false?

    facts or opinions

    1、which of the following are facts? which are opinions? a) the history of ballet began in italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. b) red cars look cooler than cars that don’t have any paint on them at all. c) breaking down of cultural barriers is probably one of the few things that societies can do to increase harmony among ever more heterogeneous peoples. d) the first pizza place in america opened up in new york’s little italy in 1905. e) at first, i believe, these factors will cause people to pull back from whatever level of cultural ‘scaling’ they have achieved to the previous level.

    lesson 9 globalization, localization, and endangered alphabets

    globalization, localization, and endangered alphabets

    1、they ___ around/about (= moved awkwardly) in the dark, trying to find their way out of the cinema.
        a、fumbled
        b、stumbled
        c、moved
        d、crawled

    2、in the final straight meyers ________, and although he didn't fall it was enough to lose him first place.
        a、fumbled
        b、stumbled
        c、fell
        d、halted

    3、our ears are becoming attuned _____ the noise of the new factory nearby.
        a、by
        b、with
        c、to
        d、at

    4、according to the text, three changes set up an interesting countercurrent that demonstrated how often the internet causes opposite effects simultaneously. they are _____.
        a、the rise of the localization industry
        b、the rise of social media
        c、the continuing improvement in machine translation
        d、the expansion of the range of digitized scripts

    5、her ________ attitude made her unpopular with the voters.
        a、modest
        b、arrogant
        c、polite
        d、lofty

    6、according to the text, perhaps as many as 80% of the world writing systems are endangered.

    7、according to the text, there are three interesting changes started to appear—changes that didn’t exactly balance the tsunami of globalization but set up an interesting countercurrent that demonstrated how often the internet causes opposite effects simultaneously after 2010.

    8、globalization thinking sees the developing world as a market or a cheap labor force.

    9、if it functions well, machine translation needs to take into account multiple world views, multiple perspectives and multiple pillars of wisdom.

    10、academics and bureaucrats use terms like “dying languages” and “failed scripts” to refer to e______ alphabets.

    reasoning and critical thinking

    1、a) the oscars are racially skewed since there are more white voting members than the colored. b) the national parks don’t need to balance racial diversity in their employees since most visitors to the national parks are white. c) globalization provides chances for minority languages to convene, converse and mobilize because social media enable people to communicate with each other. d) doctor-assisted suicide should not be allowed since this practice violates the hippocratic oath to “do no harm.” e) readers should be encouraged to interact with the content while reading since the process of interaction will result in changes in the learner’s understanding, the learner’s perspective, or the cognitive structures of the learner’s mind. which of the above are cases of strong sense critical thinking? which of the above cases are weak sense of critical thinking?

    《学术性阅读:语言与思维》期末考试

    《学术性阅读:语言与思维》期末测试

    1、passage 1 once greenhouse gases get into the earth’s upper atmosphere, they are like the couple who came to dinner; they stay. they can hang there for decades or centuries. and they are undesirable guests because by retaining heat that would otherwise escape into space, they can turn our world into a greenhouse. at current rates, greenhouse gases are being released into the atmosphere—by the burning of fossil fuels—much faster than they are being removed. as a result, even if we could hold emissions constant at their present levels, the gases would continue to intensify in the atmosphere for the next century. the pace at which gases and chemicals from emissions may be building up in the atmosphere is still a matter of scientific dispute. but if the majority of the scientific community is right, carbon dioxide (co2) will nearly double, from over five billion tons in 1985 to over nine billion tons by 2010. if co2 levels increases as foretold, the rise in average global temperature, when it hits full force no later than the middle of the coming century, could be between three degrees and nine degrees fahrenheit. the increase in temperature will be relatively small at the equator, grow larger toward the higher latitudes, and pea at the poles. if co2 in the atmosphere triples or quadruples, the warming could soar much higher, to temperatures far beyond the 1range of human experience. sharp fluctuations in the temperature are not unknown in our planet’s history. abrupt climatic shifts have often followed shifts in the direction of earth’s axis, or sudden injections of co2 into the atmosphere, or onetime shots of methane into the environment from geological activity. but these don’t compare with what is coming. what will make the warming of the coming century unique will be the enormous velocity with which it is likely to strike. an eight-degree-fahrenheit rise in the average annual temperature, for instance, would equal the entire average annual temperature variation of the last 125,000 years. what would such an unprecedented occurrence bring? the last change in world temperatures of this magnitude—the gradual warming over many millennia—transformed the landscape of north america, shifting the atlantic ocean inland by about a hundred miles, creating the great lakes and changing the composition and location of forests across the continent. can we expect less this time? 2rising sea levels could wipe out rice fields in asia, destroy precious coastal wetlands worldwide, and drown venice, cairo, shanghai, and the florida keys. dramatic northward shifts in rainfall would turn now-fertile areas like the united states’ midwest into a rangeland at best, a dust bowl at worst. days of 122-degree heat would be commonplace. the author of the passage attempts to arouse in the readers a sense of ________.
        a、alarm
        b、anger
        c、inquisitiveness
        d、hope

    2、in 1, “range” most nearly means________.
        a、sequence
        b、territory
        c、scope
        d、capacity

    3、in the last paragraph (2), the author does all of the following except ________.
        a、make a prediction
        b、attempt to arouse emotions
        c、outline a promising solution
        d、create a vivid depiction

    4、passage 2 in a recent book, a former united states senator prophesied that: 3[climate] extremes would trigger meteorological chaos—raging hurricanes such as we have never seen;uncommonly long, record-breaking heat waves; and profound drought that could drive africa and the entire indian sub-continent over the edge into mass starvation… the senator’s forecast, and his history are both wrong. warmer periods bring benign rather than violent weather. milder temperatures will induce more evaporation from oceans and thus more rainfall—where it will fall we cannot be sure, but the earth as a whole should receive greater precipitation. meteorologists now believe that any rise in sea levels over the next century will be at most a foot or more, not twenty. the senator also flunks history: around 6,000 years ago, the earth sustained temperatures that were probably more than four degrees fahrenheit hotter than those of the twentieth century, yet humans flourished. 4the sahara desert bloomed with plants, and water-loving animals such as hippopotamuses wallowed in rivers. canada enjoyed a warmer climate and more rainfall than it does now. global warming has been described as “the most serious problem our civilization faces.” those who dispute global warming have been styled as “self-interested” and compared to spokespersons for the tobacco industry who challenge the link between smoking and cancer. many disinterested scientists, however, including climatologists with no financial interest other than preventing wasteful expenditures of society’s limited resources, challenge the evidence and the models that underlie the warming hypothesis. in fact, the evidence supporting the claim that the earth has grown warmer is shaky. moreover, the theory is weak and the models on which the conclusions are based cannot even replicate the current climate. 5it is asserted, for example, that over the last 100 years, the average temperature at the earth’s surface has increased by about one degree fahrenheit. however, given the evidence that in the united states temperatures have failed to rise and that british naval records find no significant change in temperatures at sea since the mid-1800’s, the public is entitled to be wary. what is well known is that climate changes. 6during the last interglacial, about 130,000 years ago, the average temperature in europe was at least two to five degrees fahrenheit warmer than at present. the author of the passage most directly appeals to the reader’s sense of ________.
        a、sentimentality
        b、logic
        c、irreverence
        d、nostalgia

    5、what will africa and the entire indian sub-continent be driven into due to meteorological chaos triggered by climate extremes?
        a、raging hurricanes
        b、record-breaking heat waves
        c、profound drought
        d、mass starvation

    6、“those who dispute global warming have been styled as “self-interested” and compared to spokespersons for the tobacco industry who challenge the link between smoking and cancer.” those people in the sentence are said to do which of the following?
        a、delay changes by demanding absolute measure
        b、act based upon ulterior motives
        c、work carelessly on their scientific projects
        d、remain unaware of recent global warming study

    7、“many disinterested scientists, however, including climatologists with no financial interest other than preventing wasteful expenditures of society’s limited resources, challenge the evidence and the models that underlie the warming hypothesis.” what’s the function of the sentence?
        a、make an accusation
        b、offer a concession
        c、provide a rebuttal
        d、analyze an anecdote

    8、the authors of passage 1 and 2 disagree on which major point?
        a、how best to measure global warming
        b、the actual impact global warming would have
        c、the most effective way to reduce co2 levels
        d、the co2 levels have increased significantly

    9、which of the following sentence in passage 2 are most similar in tone to the last paragraph of passage 1?
        a、[climate] extremes would trigger meteorological chaos—raging hurricanes such as we have never seen.
        b、the sahara desert bloomed with plants, and water-loving animals such as hippopotamuses wallowed in rivers.
        c、it is asserted, for example, that over the last 100 years, the average temperature at the earth’s surface has increased by about one degree fahrenheit.
        d、during the last interglacial, about 130,000 years ago, the average temperature in europe was at least two to five degrees fahrenheit warmer than at present.

    10、the relationship between the two passages is best characterized by which of the following?
        a、passage 1 establishes a metaphor on which passage 2 elaborates.
        b、passage 1 represents an example of generalization made in passage 2.
        c、passage 2 functions as a counterpoint to passage 1.
        d、passage 2 is a partial endorsement of passage 1.

    11、the author of passage 2 would most likely advocate which of the following response to the issues addressed in passage 1?
        a、study of atmospheric conditions on nearby planets.
        b、experimentation with laboratory-created microclimates.
        c、maintenance of current practices until a need for change has been demonstrated.
        d、reevaluation of present policies in anticipation of a possible drastic overhaul.

    12、which statement would most likely be supported by the authors of both passages?
        a、additional research on global warming is urgently needed.
        b、global warming will significantly alter life on earth.
        c、it is difficult to detect the origin of excess co2 in the atmosphere.
        d、variation in earth’s temperatures is not a new phenomenon.

    13、passage 3 i have long been intrigued by roma numerals. there is something of a contradiction between the simplicity of the first numerals and the perplexing complexity of the others. the first three numbers, i, ii, and iii, follow a self-evident rule. they simply contain as many bars as there are units. number iv, however, breaks the rule. 7it introduces a new sign, v, whose meaning (five) is far from obvious, and its format directs the reader to subtraction operation, 5-1, that seems arbitrary—why not 6-1, 7-3, or even 2í2? looking at the history of numerical notation, we find that the first three roman numerals are like living fossils—they draw us back to a remote time when humans had not yet invented a way of writing down numbers and found it sufficient to keep track of numbers by engraving a stick with as many notches as the sheep or camels they owned. the series of notches preserved a durable record of a past accounting. this was indeed the very beginning of a symbolic notation. this was indeed the very beginning of a symbolic notation, because the same row of five notches could symbolize any set of five objects. this historical reminder, however, only thickens the mystery surroundings the fourth roman numeral. why did people abandon a notation that was so useful and simple? how did the arbitrariness of iv, which puts a 8burden on the attention and memory of the reader, come to replace the simplicity of iiii, which enabled the average shepherd to understand numbers? 9more to the point, if for one reason or another some revision of the number notation system was required, why did the first numerals i, ii and iii escape it? is it just a historical accident? did some chance events preside over the fate of roman number notation and its survival till the present? the answer seems to be “no.” the singularity of the roman numbers i, ii, and iii has a universal character that transcends the history of the mediterranean countries. a comprehensive study has shown that in all civilizations, the first three numbers were initially denoted by repeatedly writing down the symbol for “one” as many times as necessary, exactly as in roman numerals. and most, if not all, civilizations stopped using this system beyond the number three. the chinese, for instance, denote the numbers 1, 2 and 3 using one, two, and three horizontal bars—yet they employ a radically different symbol for number 4. even our own arabic digits, although they seem arbitrary, derive from the same principle. our digit 1 is a single bar, and our digits 2 and 3 actually derive from two or three horizontal bars that became 10tied together when they were deformed by being handwritten. only the arabic digits 4 and beyond can thus be considered as genuinely 11arbitrary. such a remarkable 12cross-cultural convergence calls for general explanation. at this point it is tempting to draw a parallel with infants’ number discrimination abilities. human infants readily discriminate between one and two objects or between two and three objects, but their abilities do not extend much beyond this point. yet suppose that number discrimination abilities remained unchanged in human adults. this might provide the first elements of an explanation: beyond number 3 the bar notation would no longer be legible because we would be unable to distinguish at a glance iiii from iiiii or iiiiii from iiiiiii. roman numerals, then lead us to examine to what extent the number discrimination abilities found in babies extend to adults. and although elaborate mathematical language enables us to go way beyond the limits of proto-numerical notation, these primitive units of measurement still retain considerable influence on our way of perceiving, writing and speaking about numbers. a central purpose of the passage is to ________.
        a、indicate a new discovery
        b、account for a universal phenomenon
        c、defend a controversial claim
        d、advocate an alternative system

    14、the passage as a whole suggests that which symbol is an example of the “self-evident rule” mentioned in paragraph 1?
        a、the arabic number 3
        b、the arabic number 4
        c、the roman number iv
        d、the roman number v

    15、in 7, the author most likely includes a series of mathematical operations in order to illustrate ________.
        a、a relationship between roman and arabic numerals
        b、the complexity of some mathematical equations
        c、various ways that different cultures calculate numbers
        d、different ways that a specific number could have been represented

    16、the “burden” mentioned in 8 refers to a person’s need to ________.
        a、record numbers in a written form
        b、count the bars in a given numerical symbol
        c、use numbers to keep track of possessions
        d、recall a simple mathematical operation

    17、which response to the question 9 “more to the point, if for one reason or another some revision of the number notation system was required, why did the first numerals i, ii and iii escape it?” is most directly supported by the author’s argument?
        a、these numbers were misunderstood by virtually everyone.
        b、these were the most commonly used numbers.
        c、the symbols for these numbers were identical in most civilizations.
        d、the numbers of bars in these numerals were recognized at a glance.

    18、in 10, “tied” most nearly means ________.
        a、joined
        b、secured
        c、constrained
        d、equalized

    19、the passage most directly supports which generalization about the numerical symbols that are “arbitrary” (11)?
        a、they are identical in virtually all societies.
        b、they may have different values in different societies.
        c、they have no readily apparent relationship with the quantities they represent.
        d、they were developed with little regard for practicality.

    20、the author suggests that a “cross-cultural convergence” (12) most likely results from a ________.
        a、consensus among nations to adopt a shared system
        b、noncultural factor in human mental processes
        c、biological cause of contradictory social conduct
        d、history of competition among neighboring societies

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