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    chapter 1 basic principles of science of farming system

    chapter 1 test

    1、there is no fundamental difference between the “science of farming system” and “principle of cropping system and soil management” courses as they are one course.

    2、studies in “science of farming system” are limited to farmland.

    3、"farming system" is equivalent to "cropping system.

    4、abandoning cropping system began in the spring and autumn and the warring states period.

    5、optimization of farming systems is only aimed at achieving high yields of field crops.

    6、plants production is called "the basic production plant of agriculture" in the "three workshops" theory of agricultural factory.

    7、animal production is called "the basic production plant of agriculture" in the "three workshops" theory of the agricultural factory.

    8、soil management is called the "transformation workshop of agriculture" in the "three workshops" theory of the agricultural factory.

    9、food security implies that food is available in absolute quantities to meet the needs of the present generation.

    10、developing agricultural production is only the concern for high yields, environmental protection can be ignored for the time being.

    chapter 2 farmland cropping system

    chapter 2 test

    1、crop layout is a general term for the crop structure and configuration of an area or production unit.

    2、the geographical features affect the distribution of crops through the redistribution of light, heat, water, soil, fertilizer and other conditions.

    3、food crop structure refers to the proportion of area, production and value of each crop within the grain crop.

    4、mono cropping refers to a single group structure consisting of several crops.

    5、cropping system is a method of international representation of the extent of arable land use.

    6、multiple cropping could achieve high crop yields by extending the photosynthetic time, increasing the photosynthetic area and improving the annual use of light energy.

    7、continuous cropping will lead to a high soil moisture depletion.

    8、continuous cropping will not lead to the accumulation of toxic substances.

    9、beans → wheat → maize, which belongs to the rotation between different species of crops.

    10、crop rotation will alleviate the crop damage from diseases, pests and weed.

    mid-term test

    1、please briefly describe the general situation of agricultural resources, types and leading modes of farming system in your region, and analyze the key content and future direction of the development of the local farming system.

    chapter 3 farmland fertility maintenance system

    chapter 3 test

    1、land capability and soil fertility are a concept.

    2、land capability can be classified as increasing, maintaining, decreasing and depleting.

    3、the technology system for farmland fertilizer cultivation mainly consists of four pathways: chemical, physical, biological and protective.

    4、farmland fertilizer cultivation is a single fertilization technique with a dual concept of spatial and temporal.

    5、fertilizer-saving farming is an integrated technology system.

    6、soil tillage can adjust the physical properties of the soil, but not improve fertility conditions.

    7、the soil properties that affect the ease of tillage and the quality of soil work are called soil tillage.

    8、for the same type of soil, soil moisture content is a determining factor for tillage and tillage quality.

    9、plough tillage, deep tillage, rotary tillage, mid-tillage are all basic soil tillage measures.

    10、no-tillage, straw retention, plastic mulching, gravel mulching, etc. are all conservation tillage techniques.

    chapter 4 farmland protection system

    chapter 4 test

    1、water erosion, also known as water and soil loss, is soil erosion caused by hydraulic effects.

    2、the engineering measures to prevent water and soil from erosion mainly include terraces, silt dams and water cellars.

    3、the damage degree of wind erosion can't be quantified.

    4、engineering measures to prevent wind erosion are mainly construction of farmland shelterbelt network.

    5、in general, the vitality of weeds is weaker than that of crops.

    6、spraying herbicides is a biological weed control measure.

    7、excessive fertilizer application is not considered farmland pollution.

    8、sewage irrigation can make full use of water resources and can be strongly promoted without monitoring.

    9、saline-alkali soil is a collective term for saline soil, alkaline soil and various kinds of saline and alkaline soil.

    10、sub-membrane drip irrigation technology can reduce deep seepage of irrigation water, inhibit soil evaporation and surface salt accumulation, and play a role in the management and prevention of secondary salinity in the soil.

    chapter 5 farming management system

    chapter 5 test

    1、types of farming operations can be generally divided into family and co-operative operations.

    2、agricultural urbanization is of great significance.

    3、large planters are the owners of future agriculture.

    4、land circulation refers to the transfer of land ownership.

    5、family farms operate on a large scale in japan.

    6、new-type professional farmers will have farming as a fixed and even lifelong occupation, and they are the real agricultural heirs.

    7、agricultural industrialization an inevitable trend in agricultural development.

    8、farmers’ specialized cooperatives serve farmers as their main clients.

    9、market-driven is the most important business model of agricultural industrialization.

    10、transportation often plays a determining role in the type of farming operation.

    chapter 6 regional farming system

    chapter 6 test

    1、northeast area only includes three provinces, namely liaoning provinces, jilin provinces and heilongjiang provinces.

    2、northeast area is located in the higher latitude zone.

    3、water resources in huang-huai-hai region are very abundant.

    4、agriculture in huang-huai-hai region is mainly based on fishing.

    5、rice is absolutely dominant in grain production in the middle and lower reaches of the yangtze river region.

    6、wheat can’t be grown in the middle and lower reaches of the yangtze river.

    7、south area has abundant rainfall never experiences drought in agriculture.

    8、for the four major food crops, only rice can be grown in south area.

    9、northwest area is an important region of dry farming.

    10、animal agriculture can’t be developed in northwest area due to severe water shortages.

    final examination

    final examination for the first class.

    1、science of farming system is a comprehensive agricultural application science that studies and establishes a region or an agricultural enterprise, rational ( ).
        a、farming technology
        b、farming system theory and technology system
        c、cultivation techniques
        d、fertilization technology

    2、science of farming system has the characteristics of comprehensive and ( ) discipline.
        a、attenuation
        b、progressive
        c、crossover
        d、simplicity

    3、science of farming systeme aims to realize ( ) of farmland crops, promote the coordinated development of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, and improve the productivity of the agricultural system.
        a、continuous increase in
        b、high production
        c、environmental protection
        d、sustainable

    4、the main body of science of farming system belongs to ( ) scientific category.
        a、society
        b、geography
        c、life
        d、natural

    5、multi-cropping is the intensification of ( ), space and resources, which can significantly increase land productivity.
        a、time
        b、system
        c、animal force
        d、climate

    6、science of farming system should arrange agricultural land use planning from the ( ) point of view, and coordinate multiple agricultural production steps.
        a、economy
        b、distinguishing feature
        c、partial
        d、global and holistic

    7、science of farming system is mainly devoted to ( ) research.
        a、farming system
        b、seeding technology
        c、harvest technology
        d、processing technology

    8、the main content of the farming system includes the crop ( ) system, land conservation system and farming management system.
        a、planting
        b、rotation
        c、plowing
        d、deep loosing

    9、the crop ( ) system is the main body of the farming system.
        a、sowing
        b、planting
        c、harvesting
        d、processing

    10、the land conservation system is the foundation of the sustainable development of the planting system, including the land conservation system and the farmland ( ) system.
        a、cultivation
        b、plowing
        c、mulching
        d、protection

    11、science of farming system was developed on the basis of ( ).
        a、principle of cropping system and soil management
        b、ecology
        c、crop cultivation science
        d、economics

    12、the farming system is mainly composed of farm production system and farm ( ) system.
        a、processing
        b、managiing
        c、storaging
        d、attendance

    13、the farm management system refers to the industrial organization and management technology system that aims to improve the economic output efficiency and ( ) of the agricultural system in a specific area in the farm management and family livelihood activities, involving intensification of production, diversification of management, and scale of management , increasing income, non-agriculturalization, and non-agriculturalization of living and other different development strategies and control measures.
        a、increase of the economic income of farmers
        b、environmental protection
        c、product storage
        d、secondary processing

    14、( ) are the decisive factor for the development of farming systems.
        a、intelligence
        b、storage
        c、physical strength
        d、resources

    15、( ) is the embodiment of solar radiant energy and the basic energy source for photosynthesis of higher plants.
        a、water
        b、heat
        c、air
        d、light

    16、crop layout refers to the general term for crops ( ) and configuration of a region or production unit.
        a、structure
        b、composition
        c、scale
        d、location

    17、the crop layout includes regional layout and ( ).
        a、micro layout
        b、unit layout
        c、space layout
        d、time layout

    18、( ) is the premise of crop layout.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、satisfying the needs of the society

    19、( ) is the basis of crop layout.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、satisfying the needs of the society

    20、( ) determines the feasibility of determining crop layout plan.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、whether it meets the needs of the society

    21、the planting pattern is composed of crop structure and ( ).
        a、area
        b、planting system
        c、species
        d、amounts

    22、crop structure refers to the composition and spatial configuration of field crops, including ( ) and multi-cropping.
        a、relay cropping
        b、mixed cropping
        c、sole cropping
        d、intercropping

    23、planting maturity system refers to the number of seasons of planting crops in a year, including ( ) and multiple maturation systems.
        a、single-harvest
        b、double-harvest
        c、triple-harvest
        d、four-harvest

    24、four basic types of planting patterns are formed by different crop structures and planting and maturation combinations: one crop per annual year, single cropping for multiple-harvest, multiple cropping for one harvest, and ( ).
        a、one harvest per annual year
        b、three-harvest a year
        c、four-harvest for five years
        d、multiple-harvest for several-year

    25、multi-cropping for one-harvest is a kind of intensive use of ( ) planting method.
        a、space
        b、time
        c、space and time
        d、environment

    26、the timely and reasonable application of various pesticides can alleviate the problem of ( ) caused by continuous cropping and obstacles in soil microbial communities.
        a、insufficient soil fertility
        b、pests and weeds
        c、toxic accumulation
        d、insufficient moisture

    27、timely and adequate fertilization and irrigation can eliminate the problem of ( ) and insufficient water caused by continuous cropping.
        a、pests and weeds
        b、insufficient soil fertility
        c、toxic accumulation
        d、nutrient consumption

    28、crop rotation can be divided into ( ),three-harvest in two-year rotation, two-harvest in one-year rotation, and three-harvest in one-year rotation.
        a、one crop per annual year
        b、fallow rotation
        c、paddy-upland rotation
        d、change crops rotation

    29、crop rotation refers to a planting method that rotates ( ) or uses different planting modes in order between different years on the same field.
        a、the same kind of crops
        b、the same planting pattern
        c、different species of crops
        d、several planting modes

    30、according to the characteristics of land protection methods in crop rotation, it can be divided into fallow-crop rotation, ( ), crop rotation, grass-crop rotation, green manure-crop rotation, and rice-bean rotation.
        a、paddy-upland rotation
        b、fallow rotation
        c、two crops a year rotation
        d、one crop per annual year rotation

    31、the most severe type of water erosion is ( ).
        a、splash erosion
        b、surface erosion
        c、gullying
        d、torrential flood erosion

    32、the least severe type of water erosion is ( ).
        a、torrential flood erosion
        b、splash erosion
        c、surface erosion
        d、gullying

    33、( ) is the most important climatic factor affecting water erosion.
        a、rainfall
        b、temperature
        c、solar power
        d、wind

    34、water erosion is usually not easy to occur in ( ).
        a、long slope
        b、steep slope
        c、flat soil
        d、uneven ground

    35、good vegetation cover such as thick turf or dense forest on the ground can ( ) water erosion.
        a、transitional
        b、improve
        c、not effect on
        d、aggravate

    36、( ) is the most vulnerable to wind erosion.
        a、sandy soil
        b、loam
        c、clay
        d、black soil

    37、the windproof effect is best when the ridge is ( ) to the wind direction.
        a、horizontal
        b、vertical
        c、45 degree tilt
        d、60 degree tilt

    38、farmland has weak wind erosion resistance during the ( ) of crops.
        a、seedling stage
        b、flowering
        c、graining
        d、harvest

    39、in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate humid climate zones, water and salt movement is dominated by ( ).
        a、upward movement
        b、downward movement
        c、up and down movement alternately
        d、vertical

    40、soil particles with a diameter larger than ( ) are non-wind-erodible particles and are not susceptible to wind erosion.
        a、0.1 mm
        b、0.2 mm
        c、0.5 mm
        d、1 mm

    41、the land capability has three characteristics: comprehensiveness, cultivability and ( ) .
        a、plasticity
        b、controllability
        c、adjustability
        d、variability

    42、the main types of land capability are elevation type, ( ) type, regression type and exhaustion type.
        a、environment friendly
        b、maintenance
        c、culture
        d、intensive

    43、the soil ( ) is the material base of the land capability.
        a、bulk density
        b、water content
        c、character
        d、organic matter

    44、60%-70% of the organic matter in soil is in the form of soil ( ) .
        a、humus
        b、free quality
        c、mineral substance
        d、black soil

    45、the organic matter content of farmland in china is decreasing from southeast to ( ) .
        a、southwest
        b、northwest
        c、northeast
        d、north

    46、when soil organic matter content is below ( ) , there is a significant positive correlation between soil organic matter content and crop yield.
        a、4%
        b、8%
        c、10%
        d、15%

    47、the natural ( ) of nutrients includes volatilization and denitrification, wind erosion and water erosion losses, infiltration and runoff losses.
        a、output
        b、consume
        c、loss
        d、increase

    48、the elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium belong to ( ) restitution type nutrient.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    49、magnesium, calcium, sulfur, silicon, sodium and other elements belong to ( ) return type nutrients.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    50、iron, aluminum, manganese and other elements belong to ( ) return-type nutrients.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    51、the multi-path field fertilization technology system is based on ( ) dynamic equilibrium.
        a、nutrient
        b、organic matter content
        c、soil fertility
        d、land capability

    52、perhaps more than ( ) of the world's grain-yield gains are accounted for by fertilisers.
        a、30%
        b、40%
        c、60%
        d、50%

    53、physical approach is the main ( ) approach to fertility.
        a、intensify
        b、basic
        c、adjust
        d、promote

    54、circular agriculture is a new development mode relative to ( ) agricultural development.
        a、modern
        b、tradition
        c、digital
        d、information

    55、the topsoil layer can be divided into 0 ~ 3 cm thick topsoil layer, 3 ~ 10 cm thick () and 10 ~ 25 cm stable layer from top to bottom.
        a、plow sole
        b、subsoil
        c、raw soil
        d、seed layer

    56、rhizomatous crops require a more ( ) plowing layer of soil.
        a、thick pine
        b、level
        c、compaction
        d、hard

    57、it is generally accepted that conservation tillage originated from ( ) .
        a、usa
        b、europe
        c、china
        d、south america

    58、agricultural production has the dual characteristics of biology and society.

    59、in 1840, the german chemist liebich proposed the famous theory of mineral nutrient return, which revealed the scientific principles of crop rotation and soil fertilization, and promoted the development of modern fertilizer industry.

    60、for science of farming system and its main research objective-farming system, its main research content including: land use, land maintenance, land protection and income-increasing technology and related theories in a region or agricultural enterprise.

    61、science of farming system is an independent subject and has no connection with other subjects.

    62、science of farming system is a comprehensive subject with the macro as its main focus and the micro as its supplement.

    63、science of farming system is an applied and basic subject, which emphasizes both theory and practice.

    64、the farming system includes a variety of sub-systems such as planting system, breeding system, agricultural product processing system, and ecological protection system.

    65、science of farming system is a purely theoretical subject.

    66、the farming system refers to a comprehensive agricultural production and operation management system composed of agricultural subsystems such as planting, breeding, agricultural product processing and storage, and agricultural product marketing in a specific area.

    67、the core task of farming system research is to solve the rational allocation of production factors and technology among the various subsystems of agriculture, so as to fully improve the efficiency of resource utilization and the economic effect of system operation in a specific area.

    68、the farm production system refers to the comprehensive agricultural production technology system with the core of improving the utilization efficiency of natural resources such as light, heat, water and soil in the specific area agricultural system and increasing the output of agricultural products during the development and utilization of land resources,which related to forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, hunting and other various agricultural production technology fields.

    69、according to the level of economic development of different countries, the development focus of farming systems in different countries is basically the same.

    70、the ecological protection system is an important part of the farming system.

    71、increasing farmers' income and prospering the rural economy are the main goals of the farming system.

    72、global climate change makes agriculture face huge challenges.

    73、crop structure refers to the distribution of crops in a region or field.

    74、regional layout refers to a geographical layout with a large scope, a long time, and a strategic deployment role.

    75、the ecological adaptability of crops varies greatly, and the crops with wider adaptability are narrower.

    76、the layout of regional crops and unit crops are fixed for a long time.

    77、generally, the difference in crop horizontal zonality distribution is not significant, but the vertical zonality of crop distribution is particularly obvious.

    78、winter wheat crops once a year belong to single cropping.

    79、the multi-cropping in one-year planting mode is suitable for areas with short growing seasons, or large areas with sparse populations, and high degree of mechanization.

    80、single-cropping for multi-year planting mode can simultaneously and intensively use time and space.

    81、when the land equivalent ratio is greater than 1, which indicates that the compound group has the advantage of increasing production.

    82、multiple cropping refers to a planting method where two or more crops are planted sequentially on the same field within a year.

    83、the continuous application of wheat-corn multiple cropping methods is called crop rotation.

    84、at present, continuous cropping is a planting method widely used in agricultural production, especially in areas or production units where specialized production is more obvious.

    85、there is currently no way to eliminate continous cropping obstacle.

    86、continuous cropping will lead to partial consumption of nutrients.

    87、continuous cropping refers to a planting method in which the same crop is planted on the same field for years or the same planting mode is used continuously.

    88、without runoff, there would be no water erosion.

    89、the object of water erosion is soil.

    90、temperature will not affect water erosion.

    91、good vegetation cover such as thick turf or dense forest on the ground can alleviate the impact of climate, topography, and soil on water erosion.

    92、soil cultivation can prevent wind erosion, but improper soil cultivation can also promote wind erosion.

    93、the main functions of farmland shelterbelts are wind prevention, sand prevention, reduction of water erosion and water retention, temperature adjustment and improvement of saline soil.

    94、biological control is currently the most widely used weed control measure.

    95、weeds are intermediate hosts of crop diseases and insect pests.

    96、weeds compete with crops for light, water and fertilizer, and deteriorate the ecological conditions of crops.

    97、weeds will not reduce crop yield and quality.

    98、land capability is reflected by crop production and is constrained by many factors.

    99、land capability is soil fertility.

    100、the goal of fertilizing farmland is to maintain land capability.

    101、the content of organic matter is generally higher on shady slope than on sunny slope.

    102、nutrient is an important component of soil fertility, and its dynamic equilibrium is an important basis for rational fertilization.

    103、the technology system of multi-way fertilization in farmland is mainly composed of chemical, physical, biological and protective approaches.

    104、chemical fertilizing is a way to strengthen soil fertility.

    105、biological fertilizing is an intensive way to fertilize soil.

    106、the fertilization system of farmland is a single fertilization technique.

    107、plastic film mulching also belongs to one of the technology modes of soil fertility promotion and fertilizer saving.

    108、soil tillage can provide a suitable soil environment for crop growth.

    109、ploughing mainly has the function of turning over soil, loosening soil and breaking soil.

    110、soil organic matter and nutrients could not be reduced by less no-tillage.

    final examination

    final examination for the first class.

    1、science of farming system is a comprehensive agricultural application science that studies and establishes a region or an agricultural enterprise, rational ( ).
        a、farming technology
        b、farming system theory and technology system
        c、cultivation techniques
        d、fertilization technology

    2、science of farming system has the characteristics of comprehensive and ( ) discipline.
        a、attenuation
        b、progressive
        c、crossover
        d、simplicity

    3、science of farming systeme aims to realize ( ) of farmland crops, promote the coordinated development of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, and improve the productivity of the agricultural system.
        a、continuous increase in
        b、high production
        c、environmental protection
        d、sustainable

    4、the main body of science of farming system belongs to ( ) scientific category.
        a、society
        b、geography
        c、life
        d、natural

    5、multi-cropping is the intensification of ( ), space and resources, which can significantly increase land productivity.
        a、time
        b、system
        c、animal force
        d、climate

    6、science of farming system should arrange agricultural land use planning from the ( ) point of view, and coordinate multiple agricultural production steps.
        a、economy
        b、distinguishing feature
        c、partial
        d、global and holistic

    7、science of farming system is mainly devoted to ( ) research.
        a、farming system
        b、seeding technology
        c、harvest technology
        d、processing technology

    8、the main content of the farming system includes the crop ( ) system, land conservation system and farming management system.
        a、planting
        b、rotation
        c、plowing
        d、deep loosing

    9、the crop ( ) system is the main body of the farming system.
        a、sowing
        b、planting
        c、harvesting
        d、processing

    10、the land conservation system is the foundation of the sustainable development of the planting system, including the land conservation system and the farmland ( ) system.
        a、cultivation
        b、plowing
        c、mulching
        d、protection

    11、science of farming system was developed on the basis of ( ).
        a、principle of cropping system and soil management
        b、ecology
        c、crop cultivation science
        d、economics

    12、the farming system is mainly composed of farm production system and farm ( ) system.
        a、processing
        b、managiing
        c、storaging
        d、attendance

    13、the farm management system refers to the industrial organization and management technology system that aims to improve the economic output efficiency and ( ) of the agricultural system in a specific area in the farm management and family livelihood activities, involving intensification of production, diversification of management, and scale of management , increasing income, non-agriculturalization, and non-agriculturalization of living and other different development strategies and control measures.
        a、increase of the economic income of farmers
        b、environmental protection
        c、product storage
        d、secondary processing

    14、( ) are the decisive factor for the development of farming systems.
        a、intelligence
        b、storage
        c、physical strength
        d、resources

    15、( ) is the embodiment of solar radiant energy and the basic energy source for photosynthesis of higher plants.
        a、water
        b、heat
        c、air
        d、light

    16、crop layout refers to the general term for crops ( ) and configuration of a region or production unit.
        a、structure
        b、composition
        c、scale
        d、location

    17、the crop layout includes regional layout and ( ).
        a、micro layout
        b、unit layout
        c、space layout
        d、time layout

    18、( ) is the premise of crop layout.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、satisfying the needs of the society

    19、( ) is the basis of crop layout.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、satisfying the needs of the society

    20、( ) determines the feasibility of determining crop layout plan.
        a、obeying crop ecological adaptability
        b、economic benefit
        c、improving production conditions and technological progress
        d、whether it meets the needs of the society

    21、the planting pattern is composed of crop structure and ( ).
        a、area
        b、planting system
        c、species
        d、amounts

    22、crop structure refers to the composition and spatial configuration of field crops, including ( ) and multi-cropping.
        a、relay cropping
        b、mixed cropping
        c、sole cropping
        d、intercropping

    23、planting maturity system refers to the number of seasons of planting crops in a year, including ( ) and multiple maturation systems.
        a、single-harvest
        b、double-harvest
        c、triple-harvest
        d、four-harvest

    24、four basic types of planting patterns are formed by different crop structures and planting and maturation combinations: one crop per annual year, single cropping for multiple-harvest, multiple cropping for one harvest, and ( ).
        a、one harvest per annual year
        b、three-harvest a year
        c、four-harvest for five years
        d、multiple-harvest for several-year

    25、multi-cropping for one-harvest is a kind of intensive use of ( ) planting method.
        a、space
        b、time
        c、space and time
        d、environment

    26、the timely and reasonable application of various pesticides can alleviate the problem of ( ) caused by continuous cropping and obstacles in soil microbial communities.
        a、insufficient soil fertility
        b、pests and weeds
        c、toxic accumulation
        d、insufficient moisture

    27、timely and adequate fertilization and irrigation can eliminate the problem of ( ) and insufficient water caused by continuous cropping.
        a、pests and weeds
        b、insufficient soil fertility
        c、toxic accumulation
        d、nutrient consumption

    28、crop rotation can be divided into ( ),three-harvest in two-year rotation, two-harvest in one-year rotation, and three-harvest in one-year rotation.
        a、one crop per annual year
        b、fallow rotation
        c、paddy-upland rotation
        d、change crops rotation

    29、crop rotation refers to a planting method that rotates ( ) or uses different planting modes in order between different years on the same field.
        a、the same kind of crops
        b、the same planting pattern
        c、different species of crops
        d、several planting modes

    30、according to the characteristics of land protection methods in crop rotation, it can be divided into fallow-crop rotation, ( ), crop rotation, grass-crop rotation, green manure-crop rotation, and rice-bean rotation.
        a、paddy-upland rotation
        b、fallow rotation
        c、two crops a year rotation
        d、one crop per annual year rotation

    31、the most severe type of water erosion is ( ).
        a、splash erosion
        b、surface erosion
        c、gullying
        d、torrential flood erosion

    32、the least severe type of water erosion is ( ).
        a、torrential flood erosion
        b、splash erosion
        c、surface erosion
        d、gullying

    33、( ) is the most important climatic factor affecting water erosion.
        a、rainfall
        b、temperature
        c、solar power
        d、wind

    34、water erosion is usually not easy to occur in ( ).
        a、long slope
        b、steep slope
        c、flat soil
        d、uneven ground

    35、good vegetation cover such as thick turf or dense forest on the ground can ( ) water erosion.
        a、transitional
        b、improve
        c、not effect on
        d、aggravate

    36、( ) is the most vulnerable to wind erosion.
        a、sandy soil
        b、loam
        c、clay
        d、black soil

    37、the windproof effect is best when the ridge is ( ) to the wind direction.
        a、horizontal
        b、vertical
        c、45 degree tilt
        d、60 degree tilt

    38、farmland has weak wind erosion resistance during the ( ) of crops.
        a、seedling stage
        b、flowering
        c、graining
        d、harvest

    39、in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate humid climate zones, water and salt movement is dominated by ( ).
        a、upward movement
        b、downward movement
        c、up and down movement alternately
        d、vertical

    40、soil particles with a diameter larger than ( ) are non-wind-erodible particles and are not susceptible to wind erosion.
        a、0.1 mm
        b、0.2 mm
        c、0.5 mm
        d、1 mm

    41、the land capability has three characteristics: comprehensiveness, cultivability and ( ) .
        a、plasticity
        b、controllability
        c、adjustability
        d、variability

    42、the main types of land capability are elevation type, ( ) type, regression type and exhaustion type.
        a、environment friendly
        b、maintenance
        c、culture
        d、intensive

    43、the soil ( ) is the material base of the land capability.
        a、bulk density
        b、water content
        c、character
        d、organic matter

    44、60%-70% of the organic matter in soil is in the form of soil ( ) .
        a、humus
        b、free quality
        c、mineral substance
        d、black soil

    45、the organic matter content of farmland in china is decreasing from southeast to ( ) .
        a、southwest
        b、northwest
        c、northeast
        d、north

    46、when soil organic matter content is below ( ) , there is a significant positive correlation between soil organic matter content and crop yield.
        a、4%
        b、8%
        c、10%
        d、15%

    47、the natural ( ) of nutrients includes volatilization and denitrification, wind erosion and water erosion losses, infiltration and runoff losses.
        a、output
        b、consume
        c、loss
        d、increase

    48、the elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium belong to ( ) restitution type nutrient.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    49、magnesium, calcium, sulfur, silicon, sodium and other elements belong to ( ) return type nutrients.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    50、iron, aluminum, manganese and other elements belong to ( ) return-type nutrients.
        a、moderate restitution type
        b、height return type
        c、low return type
        d、super height return type

    51、the multi-path field fertilization technology system is based on ( ) dynamic equilibrium.
        a、nutrient
        b、organic matter content
        c、soil fertility
        d、land capability

    52、perhaps more than ( ) of the world's grain-yield gains are accounted for by fertilisers.
        a、30%
        b、40%
        c、60%
        d、50%

    53、physical approach is the main ( ) approach to fertility.
        a、intensify
        b、basic
        c、adjust
        d、promote

    54、circular agriculture is a new development mode relative to ( ) agricultural development.
        a、modern
        b、tradition
        c、digital
        d、information

    55、the topsoil layer can be divided into 0 ~ 3 cm thick topsoil layer, 3 ~ 10 cm thick () and 10 ~ 25 cm stable layer from top to bottom.
        a、plow sole
        b、subsoil
        c、raw soil
        d、seed layer

    56、rhizomatous crops require a more ( ) plowing layer of soil.
        a、thick pine
        b、level
        c、compaction
        d、hard

    57、it is generally accepted that conservation tillage originated from ( ) .
        a、usa
        b、europe
        c、china
        d、south america

    58、agricultural production has the dual characteristics of biology and society.

    59、in 1840, the german chemist liebich proposed the famous theory of mineral nutrient return, which revealed the scientific principles of crop rotation and soil fertilization, and promoted the development of modern fertilizer industry.

    60、for science of farming system and its main research objective-farming system, its main research content including: land use, land maintenance, land protection and income-increasing technology and related theories in a region or agricultural enterprise.

    61、science of farming system is an independent subject and has no connection with other subjects.

    62、science of farming system is a comprehensive subject with the macro as its main focus and the micro as its supplement.

    63、science of farming system is an applied and basic subject, which emphasizes both theory and practice.

    64、the farming system includes a variety of sub-systems such as planting system, breeding system, agricultural product processing system, and ecological protection system.

    65、science of farming system is a purely theoretical subject.

    66、the farming system refers to a comprehensive agricultural production and operation management system composed of agricultural subsystems such as planting, breeding, agricultural product processing and storage, and agricultural product marketing in a specific area.

    67、the core task of farming system research is to solve the rational allocation of production factors and technology among the various subsystems of agriculture, so as to fully improve the efficiency of resource utilization and the economic effect of system operation in a specific area.

    68、the farm production system refers to the comprehensive agricultural production technology system with the core of improving the utilization efficiency of natural resources such as light, heat, water and soil in the specific area agricultural system and increasing the output of agricultural products during the development and utilization of land resources,which related to forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, hunting and other various agricultural production technology fields.

    69、according to the level of economic development of different countries, the development focus of farming systems in different countries is basically the same.

    70、the ecological protection system is an important part of the farming system.

    71、increasing farmers' income and prospering the rural economy are the main goals of the farming system.

    72、global climate change makes agriculture face huge challenges.

    73、crop structure refers to the distribution of crops in a region or field.

    74、regional layout refers to a geographical layout with a large scope, a long time, and a strategic deployment role.

    75、the ecological adaptability of crops varies greatly, and the crops with wider adaptability are narrower.

    76、the layout of regional crops and unit crops are fixed for a long time.

    77、generally, the difference in crop horizontal zonality distribution is not significant, but the vertical zonality of crop distribution is particularly obvious.

    78、winter wheat crops once a year belong to single cropping.

    79、the multi-cropping in one-year planting mode is suitable for areas with short growing seasons, or large areas with sparse populations, and high degree of mechanization.

    80、single-cropping for multi-year planting mode can simultaneously and intensively use time and space.

    81、when the land equivalent ratio is greater than 1, which indicates that the compound group has the advantage of increasing production.

    82、multiple cropping refers to a planting method where two or more crops are planted sequentially on the same field within a year.

    83、the continuous application of wheat-corn multiple cropping methods is called crop rotation.

    84、at present, continuous cropping is a planting method widely used in agricultural production, especially in areas or production units where specialized production is more obvious.

    85、there is currently no way to eliminate continous cropping obstacle.

    86、continuous cropping will lead to partial consumption of nutrients.

    87、continuous cropping refers to a planting method in which the same crop is planted on the same field for years or the same planting mode is used continuously.

    88、without runoff, there would be no water erosion.

    89、the object of water erosion is soil.

    90、temperature will not affect water erosion.

    91、good vegetation cover such as thick turf or dense forest on the ground can alleviate the impact of climate, topography, and soil on water erosion.

    92、soil cultivation can prevent wind erosion, but improper soil cultivation can also promote wind erosion.

    93、the main functions of farmland shelterbelts are wind prevention, sand prevention, reduction of water erosion and water retention, temperature adjustment and improvement of saline soil.

    94、biological control is currently the most widely used weed control measure.

    95、weeds are intermediate hosts of crop diseases and insect pests.

    96、weeds compete with crops for light, water and fertilizer, and deteriorate the ecological conditions of crops.

    97、weeds will not reduce crop yield and quality.

    98、land capability is reflected by crop production and is constrained by many factors.

    99、land capability is soil fertility.

    100、the goal of fertilizing farmland is to maintain land capability.

    101、the content of organic matter is generally higher on shady slope than on sunny slope.

    102、nutrient is an important component of soil fertility, and its dynamic equilibrium is an important basis for rational fertilization.

    103、the technology system of multi-way fertilization in farmland is mainly composed of chemical, physical, biological and protective approaches.

    104、chemical fertilizing is a way to strengthen soil fertility.

    105、biological fertilizing is an intensive way to fertilize soil.

    106、the fertilization system of farmland is a single fertilization technique.

    107、plastic film mulching also belongs to one of the technology modes of soil fertility promotion and fertilizer saving.

    108、soil tillage can provide a suitable soil environment for crop growth.

    109、ploughing mainly has the function of turning over soil, loosening soil and breaking soil.

    110、soil organic matter and nutrients could not be reduced by less no-tillage.

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