chapter 1 an introduction to marketing and marketing management
chapter 1 defining marketing for the new realities
1、which of the following statements about marketing is true? a、it is of little importance when products are standardized. b、it can help create jobs in the economy by increasing demand for goods and services. c、it helps to build a loyal customer base but has no impact on a firm's intangible assets. d、it is not needed in an internet-fueled environment. e、it is seldom used by nonprofit organizations.
2、________ management is the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. a、marketing b、knowledge c、operations d、strategic e、distribution
3、as economies advance, a growing proportion of the economy's activities focuses on the production of ________. a、products b、events c、experiences d、luxury goods e、services
4、car rental firms, hair dressers, and management consultants provide ________. a、goods b、experiences c、events d、services e、information
5、soccer's world cup is promoted aggressively to both companies and fans. this is an example of marketing a(n) ________. a、idea b、place c、luxury item d、event e、service
6、the "malaysia, truly asia" ad campaign that showcased malaysia's beautiful landscape and its multicultural society in order to attract tourists is an example of ________ marketing. a、event b、property c、service d、place e、idea
7、people in emerging countries today are becoming increasingly health conscious and are seeking healthy food choices. as a result, demand for health foods is rising steadily, creating an opportunity for marketers to exploit this ________ market. a、demographic b、business c、need d、geographic e、service
8、four key customer markets are the consumer, business, global, and ________ market. a、demographic b、physical c、nonprofit d、product e、exclusive
9、for marketers, the term market refers to which of the following? a、a set of touch points such as store layouts and package designs b、a physical place where buyers and sellers gather c、a collection of buyers and sellers who transact over a particular product d、consumers and not businesses e、customer groups
10、the responses marketers seek from prospects include all of the following except a、decampment b、attention c、a purchase d、a donation e、a donation
11、in marketing cosmetics, laundry detergent, and products like pringles to consumers, p&g manages ________ such as eye-catching package designs and innovative product functions. a、events b、prospects c、markets d、brands e、touch points
12、which of the following is not a consumer touch point? a、store layouts b、package designs c、product functions d、shipping and logistics e、all of these are touch points.
13、________ are basic human requirements, while ________ are the ways in which those requirements are satisfied. a、wants; needs b、demands; wants c、needs; wants d、needs; demands e、demands; needs
14、when frank buys his own house, he would like to have a home theater system and a jacuzzi. he plans to save enough money in the next three years so that he can fulfill his wish. frank's desire for the home theater and the jacuzzi is an example of a(n) ________. a、need t b、want c、demand d、market e、prospect
15、when companies measure the number of people who are willing and able to buy their products, they are measuring ________. a、demand b、price elasticity c、real needs d、standard of living e、disposable income
16、a(n) ________ need is one that the consumer is reluctant or unwilling to explicitly verbalize. a、secondary b、unstated c、delight d、secret e、secret
17、companies address needs by putting forth a ________, a set of benefits that they offer to customers to satisfy their needs. a、brand b、value proposition c、deal d、marketing plan e、demand
18、marketers identify which segments of buyers present the greatest opportunity. these segments are called ________ markets. a、target b、capital c、tertiary d、demographic e、developing
19、________ reflects a customer's judgment of a product's performance in relation to his or her expectations. a、brand equity b、satisfaction c、value d、perception e、brand image
20、the value of an offering is described as the ________. a、price consumers are charged for a product b、cost of manufacturing a product c、degree to which consumer demand for a product is positive d、sum of the tangible and intangible benefits and costs to customers e、intangible benefits gained from a product
21、when volvo runs ads suggesting that its cars are the safest that money can buy, it is trying to ________. a、segment the market b、provide a service c、enter a new market d、develop brand loyalty e、position its product
22、if a marketer uses warehouses, transportation companies, banks, and insurance companies to facilitate transactions with potential buyers, the marketer is using a ________ channel. a、service b、distribution c、communication d、relationship e、standardized
23、the ________ is the channel from raw materials to components to final products that are carried to final buyers. a、communication channel b、distribution channel c、supply chain d、service chain e、marketing chain
24、the actual and potential rival offerings and substitutes that a buyer might consider are referred to as the ________. a、supply chain b、global market c、value proposition d、competition e、marketing environment
25、the ________ environment includes the actors involved in producing, distributing, and promoting an offering. the main actors are the company, suppliers, distributors, dealers, and the target customers. a、economic b、management c、strategic d、task e、tactical
26、chipotle engages customers through facebook, twitter, and other social media via its grassroots "food with integrity" digital strategy, which puts the focus on what it sells and where it comes from. these are examples of ________ media. a、owned b、earned c、paid d、service e、marketing
27、in an attempt to create greater competition and growth opportunities, countries often ________. a、increase trade barriers b、protect industries c、deregulate industries d、encourage intermediation e、reduce privatization
28、which of the three transformative forces mentioned in the chapter is associated with the boston consulting group believing brand marketers must enhance their "digital balance sheets"? a、demographics b、accountability c、social responsibility d、globalization e、technology
29、the three central trends in marketing 3.0 are collaborative marketing, globalization, and ________. a、cultural relevance b、horizontal marketing c、consumer well-being d、the rise of a creative society e、sustained technological development
30、the body shop, timberland, and patagonia behave in environmentally responsible ways that differentiate them from competitors, build consumer preference, and achieve notable sales and profit gains. this is an example of ________. a、social responsibility b、technology c、globalization d、collaboration e、goodwill
chapter2 developing and implementing marketing strategies
chapter 2 developing and implementing marketing strategies and plans
1、the task of any business is to ________. a、create customer needs b、differentiate in terms of cost of production c、deliver customer value at a profit d、reduce competition e、communicate similar value as provided by competitors
2、the value delivery process can be divided into three phases, out of which "choosing the value" implies ________, which is the essence of strategic marketing. a、segmentation, developing, and delivering b、targeting, positioning, and communicating c、targeting, positioning, and delivering d、segmentation, targeting, and positioning e、researching, developing, and delivering
3、james frank has been put in charge of gathering marketing intelligence, disseminating it within his organization, and eventually directing action on the information. mr. frank's task is best described as part of the ________ process. a、market-sensing b、new-offering realization c、customer acquisition d、customer relationship management e、fulfillment management
4、when a customer places an order at bookbox.com, the company processes the customer's payment information, sends the order to the nearest warehouse, and ships the order via fedex. this is best described as the ________ process. a、market-sensing b、customer acquisition c、customer relationship management d、fulfillment management e、new-offering realization
5、what is the second phase of the value creation and delivery sequence? a、choosing the value b、providing the value c、communicating the value d、calculating the value e、calibrating the value
6、angelo made the decision to outsource the software components of his consulting company so he could focus on the company's ________, which are sources of competitive advantage, make a contribution to perceived customer benefits, have application in a wide variety of markets, and are difficult to imitate. a、core competencies b、infrastructure c、market-sensing processes d、fulfillment management processes e、outbound logistics
7、the ________ in the value chain cover the sequence of bringing materials into the business (inbound logistics), converting them into final products (operations), shipping out final products (outbound logistics), marketing them (marketing and sales), and servicing them (service). a) operations processes a、operations processes b、manufacturing processes c、primary activities d、secondary activities e、tertiary activities
8、which of the following can be considered a primary activity in the value chain process? a、procurement b、human resource management c、technology development d、inbound logistics e、firm infrastructure
9、activities involved in building deeper understanding of existing consumers and what the product offerings mean to them would be a part of the ________ process. a、customer acquisition b、customer relationship management c、customer prospecting d、d) customer integrating management e、customer equity
10、another way to describe a supply chain, where companies partner with specific suppliers and distributors to ensure a smooth functioning of the system, is to call it a ________. a、teamwork group b、horizontal integration c、domestic power center d、value exploration e、value delivery network
11、the key to utilizing organizational core competencies is to ________ that make up the essence of the business. a、force organizational departments to justify the budgetary components b、vertically integrate and own all intermediaries c、own and nurture the resources and competencies d、emphasize global promotions e、segment the workforces
12、the ________ lays out the target markets and the value proposition that will be offered, based on an analysis of the best market opportunities. a、organizational plan b、corporate tactical plan c、corporate mission d、customer-value statement
13、juan garcia plans the daily promotional releases about his company's products and services. he can be described as a(n) ________ planner. a、strategic b、selective c、tactical d、niche e、operational
14、the ________ sphere is the number of channel levels, from raw materials to final product and distribution, in which a company will participate. a、industry b、vertical c、product/application d、competence e、market segment
15、what are hollow corporations? a、companies that market their products through franchisees b、companies that have liabilities exceeding their assets c、companies that outsource all production to suppliers d、companies that do not have any physical presence and only operate online e、companies that are horizontally integrated
16、which of the following is an example of growth by diversification? a、a company introducing its existing products in a new market b、a company introducing new product category in a new market c、a company increases its product line in an existing market d、a company introducing a new product category in an existing market e、a company integrates backward to cut costs
17、once starbucks established its presence in thousands of cities internationally, the company sought to increase the number of purchases by existing customers with a ________ strategy that led to new in-store merchandise, including compilation cds, and high-speed wireless access. a、product-development b、market-penetration c、diversification d、market-development e、conglomerate
18、a(n) ________ is when a company might seek new businesses to purchase that have no relationship to its current technology, products, or markets. a、concentric strategy b、conglomerate strategy c、horizontal strategy d、intensive growth strategy e、integrative strategy
19、which of the following terms can be defined as "the shared experiences, stories, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization"? a、organizational dynamics b、a business mission c、an ethical/value statement d、customer relationships e、corporate culture
20、when a firm aims to underprice competitors and win market share, it is using a(n) ________ strategy that requires relatively less marketing skills as compared to other strategies. a、product differentiation b、overall cost leadership c、focus d、domestic customer relationship e、price skimming
21、unlike its competitors in the online air travel industry, travelocity provides its customers with a greater variety of services such as cruise reservations, package tours, hotel bookings, and car rentals. this is an example of a(n) ________ strategy. a、overall cost leadership b、focus c、differentiation d、diversification e、promotional
22、when a business gets to know market segments intimately and pursues either cost leadership or differentiation within the target segment, it is employing a ________ strategy. a、defined b、focus c、value-added d、competitive advantage e、customer-focused
23、to keep their strategic alliances thriving, corporations have begun to develop organizational structures to support them and have come to view the ability to form and manage strategic alliances as core skills. this is called ________. a、value managed partnership b、decentralized partnership c、centralized partnership d、partner relationship management e、intensive growth management
24、which of the following elements of a marketing plan outlines the marketing activities such as pricing, channels, and communications? a、the situation analysis b、the marketing strategy c、the marketing tactics d、the financial projections e、the short-term targets
25、the most frequently cited shortcomings of current marketing plans, according to marketing executives, are lack of realism, insufficient competitive analysis, and a ________ focus. a、long-term b、profit c、short-run d、product e、price
26、the ________ is the last section of the marketing plan. it spells out the goals and budget for each month or quarter so management can review each period's results and take action as needed. a、executive summary b、situation analysis c、marketing strategy d、financial projections e、implementation controls
27、in a marketing plan, the financial projections include a sales forecast, expense forecast, and ________. a、situation analysis b、list of tactics c、communications strategy d、break-even analysis e、implementation controls
28、pegasus writes about its target market and demographics in the ________ section of its marketing plan. a、executive summary b、implementation c、situation analysis d、strategy e、tactics
29、________ is the process that turns marketing plans into action assignments and ensures that such assignments are executed in a manner that accomplishes the plan's stated objectives. a、marketing implementation b、marketing research c、marketing analysis d、brand management e、product management
30、a marketing dashboard should display ________. a、implementation controls b、plans for each marketing audit c、the company's marketing-mix models d、the instrument panel of all vehicles sold by a dealership e、a customer-performance scorecard and a stakeholder-performance scorecard
chapter3 capturing marketing insights
chapter 3 capturing marketing insights and forecasting demand
1、as the manager of an organization that is attempting to build a marketing information system (mis), you have been informed that an mis is built upon three fundamental information sources. the sources are ________, marketing intelligence activities, and marketing research. a、external records and documents b、databases found on the internet c、consultant reports d、internal company records e、secondary data from government sources such as the better business bureau
2、the heart of the internal records system is the ________ because customers favor firms that can promise timely delivery. a、sales information system b、data mining system c、order-to-payment cycle d、information needs probe e、data warehouse
3、the ________ begins with sales representatives and dealers sending orders to the firms and is followed by the sales department preparing invoices, and finally generating shipping and billing documents. a、payroll system b、market research process c、human resources system d、expense cycle e、order-to-payment cycle
4、companies can practice targeted marketing by using ________, which are records of web site usage stored on personal browsers. a、plug-ins b、data warehouses c、cookies d、cookies e、big data
5、the internal records system supplies results data, but the marketing intelligence system supplies ________ data. a、internal b、revenue c、thematic d、happenings e、process
6、a ________ is a set of procedures and sources managers use to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment. a、data warehousing system b、viral marketing campaign c、product management system d、marketing intelligence system e、sales information system
7、a company can take several steps to improve the quality of its marketing intelligence. one company purchases competitive products for study, attends open houses and trade shows, and reads competitors' published reports and stockholder information. this company is ________. a、taking advantage of government data b、motivating intermediaries to share intelligence c、networking internally and externally d、setting up customer advisory panels e、buying information from research firms
8、when gathering marketing intelligence, companies often use the u.s. census, which provides an in-depth look at the population swings, demographic groups, regional migrations, and changing family structure of the more than 281 million people living in the united states. which of the following steps to improve the quality of a company marketing intelligence system would be most closely associated with this illustration? a、a company can purchase information from outside suppliers. b、a company can take advantage of government data sources. c、a company can use online customer feedback systems to collect data. . d、a company can network externally. e、a company can use its sales force to collect and report data.
9、when a company acquires consumer-panel data from firms like a.c. nielsen company and information resources inc., which of the following steps to improve the quality of a company marketing intelligence system is the company resorting to? a、training and motivating the sales force to spot and report new developments b、motivating distributors, retailers, and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence c、hiring external experts to collect intelligence d、using external network e、purchasing information from outside research firms and vendors
10、elance.com is a service provider that allows contractors to describe their level of satisfaction with subcontractors. this is an example of a ________. a、government source of data b、public blog c、customer complaint site d、combo site offering customer reviews and expert opinions e、distributor feedback site
11、when conagra learned that stores were selling more time-saving meals and snacks when school started, it launched its "seasons of mom" campaign to help grocers adjust to seasonal shifts in household needs. which of the eight possible actions to improve the quantity and quality of its marketing intelligence yielded this insight? a、train and motivate the sales force to spot and report new developments. b、motivate distributors, retailers, and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence. c、hire external experts to collect intelligence. d、network internally and externally. e、set up a customer advisory panel.
12、________ provide diagnostic information about how and why we observe certain effects in the marketplace, and what that means to marketers. a、marketing insights b、marketing metrics c、marketing channels d、marketing information systems e、marketing-mix models
13、anne, a beautician by profession, owns a salon in the small town of franklin, new jersey. every weekend, she makes it a point to visit the other salons in franklin to find out about the beauty services they offer to customers. anne is attempting to conduct marketing research by ________. a、studying customer behavior b、forming alliances with competing firms c、using experimental research techniques d、checking out rivals e、tapping into marketing partner expertise
14、which of the following types of marketing research firms gathers consumer and trade information and then sells it for a fee (e.g., nielsen company)? a、custom marketing research firms b、syndicated-service research firms c、specialty-line marketing research firms d、generic marketing research firms e、focused marketing research firms
15、when american airlines decided to review new ideas aimed at first-class passengers on very long flights, like an ultra high-speed wi-fi service and 124 channels of high-definition satellite cable tv, their first step in the marketing research process was to ________. a、develop the research plan b、define the problem and research objectives c、collect the information d、analyze the information e、make the decision
16、when american airlines asked "1) what types of first-class passengers would respond most to ultra high-speed wi-fi service and 2) how many are likely to use it at different price levels?", it was ________. a、setting specific research objectives b、conducting exploratory research c、outlining decisions d、defining the problem e、designing a research plan
17、which of the following is considered to be the last step in the marketing research process? a、presenting findings b、analyzing information c、controlling the environment d、arriving at a decision e、drafting the report
18、if the goal of marketing research is to shed light on the real nature of a problem and to suggest possible solutions or new ideas, the research is said to be ________. a、descriptive b、quantitative c、primary d、secondary e、exploratory
19、unistar inc., is an fmcg company that produces a wide range of offerings such as grocery items and personal care products. if unistar wants to estimate the demand for its new line of body moisturizers, which are all priced at $18, it should opt for ________ research. a、descriptive b、exploratory c、prescriptive d、causal e、qualitative
20、researchers usually start their investigation by examining some of the rich variety of low-cost and readily available ________ data, then collect ________ data if the needed data don't existing or are dated, inaccurate, incomplete or unreliable. a、primary; secondary b、secondary; primary c、primary; econometric d、secondary; econometric e、exploratory; econometric
21、designing a research plan calls for decisions on all of the following except ________. a、research objectives b、data sources c、research approaches d、research instruments e、sampling plans
22、primary data can be collected in several ways. installing cameras in a retail store to unobtrusively record shopping behavior is an example of ________ research. a、focus group b、survey c、observational d、behavioral e、experimental
23、as the marketing manager of cominform pvt. ltd., a manufacturer of health drinks, you have selected 10 individuals who match the profile of your target customer, to participate in a discussion on changing lifestyle trends related to health. you have also hired a skilled moderator to facilitate the discussion and ensure that everyone participates and stays focused on the topic. the moderator provides questions and probes based on the "script" prepared by you. the discussions are also recorded for further analysis. which of the following methods of acquiring primary data is being used in this case? a、observational research b、surveys c、behavioral data d、experiments e、focus groups
24、which of the following is used to assess people's knowledge, beliefs, preferences, and satisfaction and to measure these magnitudes in the general population? a、observational research b、descriptive research c、quantitative research d、survey research e、experimental research
25、________ research is designed to capture cause-and-effect relationships by eliminating competing explanations of the observed findings. a、experimental b、behavioral c、observational d、focus group e、descriptive
1、1) ________ is the difference between the prospective customer's evaluation of all benefits and all costs of an offering and the perceived alternatives. a、perceived usefulness b、failure avoidance rate c、total customer benefit d、customer-perceived value e、competitors' market share rate
2、when a consumer considers a product or service, he or she will choose whichever product or service delivers the highest ________. a、customer-perceived value b、customer-perceived cost c、customer profitability analysis d、customer equity e、customer lifetime value
3、________ is the perceived monetary value of the bundle of economic, functional, and psychological benefits customers expect from a given market offering. a、total customer cost b、total customer benefit c、total benefits of ownership d、value proposition e、value delivery system
4、the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining, using, and disposing of a market offering is called the ________. a、activity-based cost b、customer profitability analysis c、total customer cost d、product life-cycle cost e、direct product profitability
5、which of the following is true for customer-perceived value? a、it is the perceived monetary value of the bundle of economic, functional, and psychological benefits customers expect from a product. b、it is the difference between the prospective customer's evaluation of all the benefits and all the costs of an offering and the perceived alternatives. c、it is the perceived bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining, using, and disposing of the given market offering. d、it is the net present value of the stream of future profits expected over the customer's lifetime purchases. e、it is the process of investigating the hierarchy of attributes consumers examine in choosing a brand if they use phased decision strategies.
6、which of the following is a way for companies to increase customer-perceived value? a) increase the psychological investment associated with buying a、increase the psychological investment associated with buying b、increase the buyer's time and energy investment c、increase total customer benefit by improving economic and functional benefits d、decrease total customer benefit by replacing psychological benefits of the product e、decrease the difference between total customer benefit and total customer cost
7、________ can be defined as a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service in the future despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior. a、value proposition b、loyalty c、satisfaction d、respect e、customer value
8、tbs bikes has recently introduced a series of bikes called surami. the core positioning of tbs bikes is "speed." surami is a five-gear bike, and apart from speed, the company promises to include other features such as safety, good performance, and pollution control features. this describes the ________ of the bike. a、total customer cost b、customer-perceived value c、value-delivery system d、value proposition e、total customer benefit
9、a company's ________ includes all the experiences the customer will have on the way to obtaining and using the offering. a、value proposition b、value delivery system c、customer-value analysis d、total customer benefit e、total customer cost
10、sammy's is a fast food chain that offers burgers, sandwiches, and shakes. it focuses its marketing efforts on all the experiences the customers will have on the way to obtaining their food order and eating it. hence, sammy's is focusing its marketing efforts on its ________ system. a、horizontal marketing b、cost versus benefit c、consumption d、marketing channel e、value delivery
11、total customer satisfaction is measured based on the relationship of ________. a、expected value and total customer benefit b、perceived performance and expectation c、advertised outcomes and real outcomes d、past experience and present experience e、customer attitude and salesperson's attitude
12、of customers who register a complaint, ________. a、all will do business with the company again because they are unwilling to dedicate the effort required to find another vendor b、none will do business with the company again c、customers whose complaints are satisfactorily resolved are more likely to provide publicity than those who are dissatisfied d、the speed of resolution has no impact on the likelihood of repeat business e、some will do business with the company again if their complaint is resolved
13、which of the following is the best method of recovering customer goodwill? a、sending service people to conduct door-to-door surveys b、contacting the complaining customer as quickly as possible c、identifying prospective customers from the customer database d、customizing products according to individual customer need e、defining and measuring the customer retention rate
14、rade and talion are competitors in the business of manufacturing wrist watches. while rade promises to deliver design and quality to its customers, talion promises to deliver durability and cost effectiveness. when both these companies deliver their respective promised qualities, they are delivering ________. a、performance quality b、customer support c、unique quality d、accuracy quality e、conformance quality
15、the net promoter score is calculated by subtracting ________ from ________. a、promoters; detractors b、detractors; promoters c、detractors; passively satisfied customers d、passively satisfied customers; detractors e、passively satisfied customers; promoters
16、________ lines up customers along columns and products along rows to show the profitability of selling a product to a customer. a、mystery shopping b、activity-based costing c、customer profitability analysis d、customer lifetime value e、american customer satisfaction index
17、the 80-20 rule reflects the idea that ________. a、20 percent of the company's profits are generated by the top 80 percent of customers b、the top 20 percent of customers are highly satisfied and 80 percent of customers will recommend c、20 percent of customers are unprofitable, and 80 percent make up a company's profits d、the top 20 percent of customers often generate 80 percent of the company's profits e、any new product will be accepted by 20 percent of the customers immediately, but 80 percent of the customers will be up for grabs throughout the product's life cycle
18、a profitable customer yields a ________ a、cost stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount his revenue stream b、revenue stream that exceeds the company's cost stream c、cost stream that exceeds the company's revenue stream d、revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount his cost stream e、revenue stream that equals the company's cost stream
19、a ________ is a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company's cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer. a、prospector b、profitable customer c、market challenger d、market nicher e、pioneer customer
20、customer profitability analysis is best conducted with the tools of an accounting technique called ________. a、input-output analysis b、factor analysis c、revenue-based costing d、activity-based costing e、future date costing
21、which of the following is true for activity-based costing (abc)? a、abc considers the real costs associated with each product. b、with abc, the company can estimate all costs coming from the customer, less revenue. c、the tools of abc can be used to conduct customer profitability analysis. d、it identifies the costs of products and services based on the revenue they generate. e、abc allocates indirect costs in proportion to direct costs.
22、________ describes the net present value of the stream of future profits expected over the customer's lifetime purchases. a、activity-based costing b、customer lifetime value c、customer value analysis d、customer-perceived value e、customer profitability analysis
23、cable tv operators and cellular carriers suffer from high levels of ________, or customer defections. a、customer retention b、customer churn c、detraction d、share-of-wallet e、customer complaints
24、the aim of customer relationship management is to produce high customer ________. a、integrity b、loyalty c、innovation d、liability e、equity
25、________ is the process of carefully managing detailed information about individual customers and all customer "touch points" to maximize loyalty. a、customer relationship management b、customer lifetime value c、customer profitability analysis d、customer satisfaction analysis e、customer-value delivery
26、a customer ________ is any occasion on which a customer encounters the brand and product from actual experience to personal or mass communications to casual observation. a、touch point b、point of order c、point of difference d、pivot point e、point of parity
27、a customer touch point for abacus airlines would be an item such as ________. a、ease of access to the airport b、a mechanic's ability to service the airplanes c、the reservations desk d、the value of air travel versus surface transportation e、competency of a travel agent
28、rachel and josh are on vacation in hawaii. when they arrived at the hotel, they were offered chilled juice. their check-in formalities were handled by the staff. when they entered their room, they saw that chocolates had been placed on the pillows and a flower arrangement on the table. these are examples of customer ________. a、lifetime value b、perceived value c、value analysis d、profitability analysis e、touch points
29、________ marketing is the practice of sending messages only when consumers express a willingness to become more involved with the brand. a、relationship b、permission c、cause d、defensive e、horizontal
30、another term for high customer ________ is customer churn. a、retention b、defection c、value d、perception e、belief
31、which of the following can a company do to reduce defection? a、attract new customers to try out the company's products. b、increase customer lifetime value by increasing the non-monetary costs of products. c、enhance the growth potential of existing customers through cross-selling and up-selling. d、distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. e、make low-profit customers more profitable or terminate the relationship.
32、jack has shopped at veggiesnmore. he was happy with the experience and thought that this could be an alternative to greenfoods. however, he is also eager to try out other stores in the neighborhood. he is in the ________ stage of the marketing funnel as far as shopping at veggiesnmore is concerned. a、aware b、open to trial c、most often used d、nonrejecter e、regular user
33、amy is in the "aware" stage of the marketing funnel when she says ________. a、she can try shopping at veggiesnmore while simultaneously exploring other stores in the neighborhood b、she was informed about veggiesnmore by her colleague at work c、she regularly shops from veggiesnmore d、she shops from veggiesnmore as far as the store is easily accessible e、she was happy with the experience of shopping at veggiesnmore
34、many banks and phone companies now charge fees for once-free services to ensure minimum customer revenue levels. this helps banks to ________. a、reduce the rate of customer defection b、make low-profit customers more profitable c、enhance the growth potential for each customer through cross-selling d、increase the longevity of the customer relationship e、focus disproportionate effort on high-value customers
35、which of the following is a policy a store can adopt to make low-profit customers more profitable? a、2wheels sends birthday greetings to its best customers and gives them discounts on merchandise. b、2wheels has a club for its regular customers, organizing cycling events and parties for them. c、though 2wheels previously offered free delivery, it now charges for deliveries made outside the city. d、2wheels allows existing customers to upgrade to a newer model at less than the sticker price by trading in their older model. e、2wheels encourages customers to send in their suggestions for product improvement
36、companies provide rewards to customers who buy often and in substantial amounts. these reward schemes are referred to as ________ programs. a、benefit b、frequency c、satisfaction d、profitability e、quality
37、club membership programs that are open to everyone who purchases a product or service ________. a、are more powerful long-term loyalty builders than limited-membership clubs b、will not help a company attract customers from competitors c、prevent those with only a fleeting interest in a company's products from joining d、are useful for building a database of customers but are not very good as long-term loyalty builders e、are useless unless there are fees and membership conditions
38、some customers inevitably become inactive or drop out. the challenge for marketers is to reactivate them through ________ strategies. a、win-back b、retention c、defection d、sell-out e、recuperation
39、bmw is ________ the customer experience when it offers 500 side-mirror combinations, 1,300 front bumper combinations, and 9,000 center-console combinations and provides new buyers a video link to watch their car being "born" while waiting for delivery. a、identifying b、synthesizing c、integrating d、acknowledging e、personalizing
40、to exploit the power of social media, marketers need to create tangible value for consumers, which can come from all of the following except ________. a、discounts b、coupons c、information d、solicitations e、special offers
chapter5 analyzing consumer behavior
chapter 5 analyzing consumer and business markets
1、________ is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. a、target marketing b、mind mapping c、consumer activism d、consumer behavior e、product differentiation
2、the relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior constitute a ________. a、culture b、subculture c、social class d、family e、group
3、joe is a computer service technician. people in his neighborhood usually depend on his suggestions for purchasing any computer accessory or hardware, as they believe that he has access to far more information on computer technology than the average consumer. the neighbors are also aware that joe has the required knowledge and background for understanding the technical properties of the products. within this context, joe can be called a(n) ________. a、transactional leader b、opinion leader c、role model d、gate-keeper e、international marketer
4、________ refers to a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli. a、image b、personality c、psychological transformation d、lifestyle e、acculturation
5、________ portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her environment. a、attitude b、lifestyle c、self-concept d、subculture
6、marketers who target consumers on the basis of their ________ believe that they can influence purchase behavior by appealing to people's inner selves. a、time famine b、sophistication c、money constrain d、social class e、core values
7、the starting point for understanding consumer behavior is the ________ model in which marketing and environmental stimuli enter the consumer's consciousness, and a set of psychological processes combine with certain consumer characteristics to result in decision processes and purchase decisions. a、self-reliance b、self-perception c、psychogenic d、stimulus-response e、projective
8、________ can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brands when consumers make neutral or ambiguous brand information more positive. a、selective attention b、selective distortion c、selective retention d、selective choice e、selective embellishment
9、________ is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. a、selective retention b、cognitive dissonance c、selective distortion d、subliminal perception e、selective embellishment
10、anne is a frequent purchaser of yoplait strawberry yogurt. for once, she decides to try a different flavored yogurt. instead of trying out the flavors offered by competing brands, anne selects a different flavor offered by yoplait. here, her past experience with the brand prompts her to make the choice. anne's behavior can be best described as ________. a、fallacy of proposition b、associative networking c、generalization d、heuristic thinking e、self-actualization
11、amtex electronics, a consumer products brand, frequently advertises its products inside supermarkets and retail stores to promote the process of memory ________ and stimulate purchase. a、verification b、retrieval c、decoding d、formation e、augmentation
12、the milder information search state where a person simply becomes more receptive to information about a product is called ________. a、active information search b、information search c、heightened attention d、purchase decision e、dynamic information search
13、brands that meet consumers' initial buying criteria are called the ________ set. a、total b、awareness c、consideration d、choice e、decision
14、________ are a person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies toward some object or idea. a、discriminations b、values c、beliefs d、feelings e、attitudes
15、the expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their ________. a、needs b、wants c、desires d、brand beliefs e、brand beliefs
16、________ are rules of thumb or mental shortcuts in the decision process. a、attitudes b、beliefs c、heuristics d、discriminations e、biases
17、even if consumers form brand evaluations, two general factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision: one is unanticipated situational factors; what is the other factor? a、amount of purchasing power b、attitudes of others c、short-term memory capabilities d、ability to return merchandise e、the self-concept
18、when a marketer tries to alter consumers' beliefs about her company's brand to get the consumers to rethink a purchase decision, she is using ________. a、psychological repositioning b、competitive depositioning c、positioning d、repositioning e、biased positioning
19、a key driver of sales frequency is the product ________ rate. a、consumption b、disposal c、refusal d、utility e、option
20、in which of the following is a person performing the role of an influencer? a、dan decides on the product requirements and makes the final choice of suppliers. b、luke has the authority to pick out the supplier and negotiate the terms of purchase. c、liam heads the tech team at lkg and provides information for evaluating the possible alternatives. d、lkg gets many calls from potential suppliers, and it is leah's job to weed out the good prospects and refer them to others in lkg. e、dana authorizes the actions of the deciders and buyers in lkg.
chapter6 segmentation, targeting and positioning
chapter 6 identifying market segments and targets
1、which of the following statements about market segmentation is true? a、it involves changing the identity of a product, relative to the identity of competing products, in the collective minds of the target market. b、it is a process of evaluating each segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more to enter. c、it is a process of creating an image or identity of the product in the minds of the target market. d、it is a process of identifying and profiling distinct groups of buyers who differ in their needs and wants. e、it is the quality of how marketers go to market with the goal of optimizing their spending to achieve good results.
2、establishing and communicating the distinctive benefit(s) of the company's market offering for each target segment is called ________. a、market research b、market positioning c、marketing effectiveness d、market segmentation e、market dominance
3、the process of selecting one or more market segments to enter is called market ________. a、targeting b、dominance c、positioning d、segmentation e、research
4、when nike attempts to get close to its customers at the local level by sponsoring local school teams and providing shoes, equipment, and clothing to many of them, nike is using which of the following marketing formats? a、differentiated marketing b、affiliate marketing c、guerrilla marketing d、affinity marketing e、grassroots marketing
5、when the modern museum of art separated its consumers by whether they were culture-oriented or outdoor-oriented for its new exhibit on art that used natural materials, they were using ________ segmentation. a、psychographic lifestyle b、personality c、behavioral occasions d、social class e、demographic
6、pampers divides its market demographically on the basis of ________ into prenatal, new baby, baby, toddler, and preschooler. a、life stage b、gender c、age d、income e、social class
7、the fact that honda described its boxy element as a "dorm room on wheels," but then attracted so many baby boomers that the average age of the element turned out to be 42 illustrates what quality of baby boomers? a、being willing to pay for price for valued offerings b、being turned off by overt marketing practices c、being pragmatic and prizing self-sufficiency d、wanting to purchase online e、wanting to turn back the hands of time
8、newlyweds in the united states buy more in the first six months than an established household does in five years. newlyweds are an example of a(n) ________ segment. a、life stage b、age c、behavior d、behavior e、income
9、which of the following statements about gen xers is true? a、gen xers are often willing to change brands. b、gen xers are selective, confident, and impatient. c、gen xers are socially conscious and concerned about the environment. d、gen xers prize self-sufficiency and are pragmatic. e、technology is a barrier for gen xers.
10、_______ is the science of using psychology and demographics to better understand consumers. a、psychographics b、interactionism c、clustering d、demographic transition e、customerization
11、the dimensions in the vals framework are consumer resources and ________. a、marketer resources b、product innovation c、consumer maturity d、impulsiveness e、consumer motivation
12、dennis requests his father to buy him a playstation® for his birthday. with respect to consumer decision roles, which role is dennis currently playing? a、initiator b、influencer c、decider d、buyer e、gatekeeper
13、mothers-to-be are potential users who will turn into heavy users of infant products and services. by targeting mothers-to-be as future heavy users, producers of these products and services are segmenting consumers on the basis of ________. a、attitude b、buyer-readiness stage c、loyalty status d、user status e、benefits
14、a company can learn a great deal by analyzing the degrees of brand loyalty. for example, ________ can show the firm which brands are most competitive with its own. a、hard-core loyals b、split loyals c、shifting loyals d、switchers e、antiloyals
15、if a marketer is seeking to segment a business market, which of the following variables is generally felt to be the most important? a、personal characteristics b、demographic variables c、situational factors d、operating variables e、purchasing approaches
16、urgency, specific application, and size of order are examples of ________ segmentation variables for business markets. a、situational factors b、demographic c、purchasing approaches d、personal characteristics e、operating variables
17、in segmenting its markets, an aluminum company first looked at which end-use market to serve: automobile, residential, or beverage containers. this is an example of ________. a、macrosegmentation b、microsegmentation c、geographic segmentation d、global segmentation e、short-term segmentation
18、a marketer is interested in segmenting a business market on ________ if the marketer intends to segment the market based on industries and geographical areas to serve. a、demographic variables b、situational factors c、operating variables d、purchasing approaches e、personal characteristics
19、a marketer is interested in segmenting a business market based on technology and customer capabilities. these criteria illustrate which of the following major segmentation variables? a、demographic variables b、purchasing approaches c、situational factors d、personal characteristics e、operating variables
20、a marketer is interested in segmenting a business market on ________ if the marketer's variables are loyalty and attitudes toward risk. a、situational factors b、situational factors c、personal characteristics d、operating variables e、demographic variables
21、a ________ offering consists of two parts: a naked solution and discretionary options. a、differentiated market b、flexible market c、rigid market d、vertical market e、horizontal market
22、when marketers present flexible market offerings to all members of a business segment, their offerings consist of two parts. which part contains the product and service elements that all segment members value? a、naked solution b、discretionary solution c、maximum solution d、pseudo solution e、virtual solution
23、which of the following statements is true about the five forces identified by michael porter that determine the intrinsic long-run attractiveness of a market or market segment? a、a segment is unattractive if the company's suppliers are unable to raise prices or reduce quantity supplied. b、a segment is unattractive if buyers possess strong or growing bargaining power. c、a segment is attractive when there are actual or potential substitutes for the product. d、a segment is attractive if it already contains numerous, strong, or aggressive competitors. e、the most attractive segment is one in which entry barriers are low and exit barriers are high.
24、during which step of the needs-based segmentation process would the marketer group customers into segments based on similar needs and benefits sought by the customer in solving a particular consumption problem? a、step 2–segment identification b、step 3–segment attractiveness c、step 6–segment "acid test" d、step 1–needs-based segmentation e、step 7–marketing-mix strategy
25、if an organization's marketing department wants to create "segment storyboards" to test the attractiveness of each segment's positioning strategy, it would most likely occur in the ________ step of the segmentation process. a、needs-based segmentation b、egment identification c、segment profitability d、segment "acid test" e、marketing-mix strategy
26、in the ________ step of the market segmentation process, the marketer evaluates the segment using criteria such as market growth and market access. a、need-based segmentation b、)segment identification c、segment attractiveness d、segment profitability e、segment "acid test"
27、in the ________ step of the market segmentation process, the marketer determines which demographics, lifestyles, and usage behaviors make each needs-based segment distinct and identifiable. a、segment "acid test" b、segment attractiveness c、segment profitability d、need-based segmentation e、segment identification
28、to be useful, a market segment should be ________, which means the largest possible homogeneous group worth going after with a tailored marketing program. a、measurable b、substantial c、accessible d、differentiable e、actionable
29、the characteristic of useful market segments that relates to whether the segments can be effectively reached and served is whether the segment is ________. a、measurable b、substantial c、differentiable d、accessible e、actionable
30、if your assignment was to create a value proposition and product-price positioning strategy for each segment, based on the segment's unique customer needs and characteristics, you would be in which of the following steps of the segmentation process? a、needs-based segmentation b、segment identification c、segment attractiveness d、segment positioning e、segment "acid-test"
31、for a segment to meet the ________ criterion of usefulness, the marketer must be able to formulate effective programs for attracting and serving the segments. a、measurable b、substantial c、accessible d、differentiable e、actionable
32、if married and unmarried women respond similarly to a sale on perfume, these hypothetical segments fail the ________ criterion for useful market segments. a、measurable b、substantial c、accessible d、differentiable e、actionable
33、in evaluating different market segments, the firm must look at two factors: the segment's overall attractiveness and the ________. a、company's objectives and resources b、effectiveness of the suppliers c、flexibility of legal rules governing the business d、socio-economic infrastructure e、global nature of the product
34、in ________ marketing, the firm ignores segment differences and goes after the whole market with one offer. a、niche b、mass c、guerrilla d、segmented e、differentiated
35、in ________ marketing, the firm operates in several market segments and designs different products for each segment. a、individual b、undifferentiated c、differentiated d、concentrated e、niche
36、general motors, a leading american multinational automaker, sells cars for every purpose, budget, and personality. this is an example of ________ marketing. a、undifferentiated b、differentiated c、concentrated d、niche e、micro
37、marketers usually identify niches by ________. a、dividing a segment into subsegments b、conducting vals tests c、allowing consumers to gravitate toward product brands d、examining the demographics section of the handbook of marketing e、producing products that can be used in a variety of ways
38、volkswagen concentrates on the small-car market and porsche on the sports car market. these would be examples of what is called ________. a、single-segment concentration b、selective specialization c、product specialization d、market specialization e、full market coverage
39、all of the following are benefits of following the ________ approach to target market selection: a strong knowledge of the segment's needs, a strong market presence, operating economies through specializing in production, distribution, and promotion. a) single-segment concentration a、single-segment concentration b、selective specialization c、product specialization d、market specialization e、full market coverage
40、which of the following best represents the chief advantage of pursuing a strategy of multiple segment specialization? a、it makes the company almost bulletproof to competitors' actions. . b、it diversifies the firm's risk. c、it creates synergy between markets. d、it is a low-cost strategy. e、it treats all buyers the same and, therefore, lowers promotion costs.
41、all marketing strategy is built on segmentation, targeting, and ________. a、positioning b、product c、planning d、promotion e、performance
42、the goal of positioning is to ________. a、locate the brand in the minds of consumers to maximize the potential benefit to the firm e b、discover the different needs and groups existing in the marketplace c、target those customers marketers can satisfy in a superior way d、collect information about competitors that will directly influence the firms' strategy e、help the firm anticipate what the actions of its competitors will be
43、the result of positioning is the successful creation of ________, which provides a cogent reason why the target market should buy the product. a、an award-winning promotional campaign b、a customer-focused value proposition c、a demand channel d、everyday low pricing e、employee value proposition
44、which of the following best describes a car company's value proposition? a、we charge a 20 percent premium on our cars. b、we target safety-conscious upscale families. c、we sell the safest, most durable wagon. d、we are the market leader in the small car category. e、we focus on expanding in faster-growing markets.
45、perdue's cogent reason why a target market should buy its chicken is "more tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price," also known as its ________. a、customer-focused value proposition b、competitive frame of reference c、points-of-parity d、straddle positioning e、perceptual map
46、which of the following best describes br chicken's value proposition? a、we sell chicken at most major malls. b、we undertake home delivery services. c、we target quality-conscious consumers of chicken. d、we sell tender golden chicken at a moderate price. e、we charge a 10 percent premium on our chicken.
47、points-of-________ are product associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands. a、parity b、difference c、inflection d、presence e、divergence
48、the three criteria that determine whether a brand association can truly function as a point-of-difference are ________. a、comparability, authenticity, deliverability b、desirability, peculiarity, deliverability c、deviance, peculiarity, deformity d、desirability, deliverability, differentiability e、differentiability, authenticity, desirability
49、brand mantras typically are designed to capture the brand's points-of-________. a、conflict b、parity c、inflection d、difference e、presence
50、tums claims to have the most acid-reducing components of any antacid. in what way is the brand's category membership being conveyed? a、comparing to exemplars b、relying on the product descriptor c、announcing category benefits d、focusing on reliability e、persuasion based on believability
chapter7 setting product strategy and introducing new offerings
chapter 7 setting product strategy and introducing new offerings
1、a ________ is anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a want or need, including physical goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas. a、function b、product c、benefit d、process e、structure
2、when companies search for new ways to satisfy customers and distinguish their offering from others, they look at the ________ product, which encompasses all the possible augmentations and transformations of the product. a、consumption b、expected c、potential d、augmented e、basic
3、when a shopper purchases new shoes, he or she expects the shoes to cover his or her feet and allow him or her to walk unobstructed. this is an example of what level in the consumer-value hierarchy? a、pure tangible good b、basic product c、augmented product d、potential product e、generic product
4、which of the following are tangible goods that normally survive many uses? a、generic goods b、durable goods c、core benefits d、convenience goods e、unsought goods
5、the five product levels add more customer value, and together they constitute a(n) ________. a、core benefit b、basic product c、augmented product d、customer-value hierarchy e、expected product
6、capital items are long-lasting goods that facilitate developing or managing the finished product. they include two groups: installations and ________. a、natural products b、component materials c、operating supplies d、equipment e、processed materials
7、if the ford gt is designed to accelerate to 50 miles per hour within 10 seconds, and every ford gt coming off the assembly line does this, the model is said to have high ________. a、reliability b、conformance quality c、durability d、compatibility e、interoperability
8、for ________ to be valued for products like vehicles and kitchen appliances, it should not be associated with an excessive price premium and the product must not be subject to rapid technological obsolescence. a、conformance quality b、performance quality c、repairability d、durability e、style
9、smith & adams poultry set up a computer system so that its customers (restaurants and hotels) can directly inform its central supply system about purchase volumes and dates, as well as automatically receive confirmation of orders and shipments. this is an example of a company differentiating its service in terms of ________. a、customer relationships b、customer training c、installation d、delivery ease e、ordering ease
10、realizing that although household products is a huge category–taking up an entire supermarket aisle or more–it is an incredibly boring one, the founders of method products designed a sleek, uncluttered dish soap container that also carried functional advantages, such as ease of dispensing soap and cleaning. method is competing in the crowded market for household products on the basis of superior ________. a、design b、durability c、conformance d、reliability e、performance quality
11、a group of products within a product class that are closely related because they perform a similar function, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same outlets or channels, or fall within given price ranges is known as a ________. a、product type b、product class c、need family d、product variant e、product line
12、a ________ is the set of all products and items a particular seller offers for sale. a、product line b、product mix c、product extension d、product system e、product class
13、happy home products produces detergents, toothpaste, bar soap, disposable diapers, and paper products. this company has a product ________ of five lines. a、type b、length c、class d、mix e、width
14、in offering a product line, companies normally develop a ________ and modules that can be added to meet different customer requirements. a、convenience item b、flagship product c、staple item d、potential product e、basic platform
15、which of the following is a purpose of product mapping? a、studying market matrices b、integrating target markets c、identifying market segments d、educating consumers e、integrating target matrices
16、a manufacturer of hiking boots looks at data that indicate that their subsegment of the market called "serious hiker" is declining and is predicted to decline into the future. the firm decides to enter the "low-price" segment with its new items. this is an example of a firm's ________ to reach a new market. a、down-market stretch b、up-market stretch c、two-way stretch d、marketing research e、disintermediation
17、purchasers of theatre tickets receive a 20 percent discount if they purchase and pay for the full season at one time. this is an example of what type of product-mix pricing? a、mixed bundling b、pure bundling c、product line pricing d、captive-product pricing e、two-part pricing
18、gillette uses ________ pricing when it offers razor handles at a low cost, but places a high markup on the replacement razor blades that fit in the handles. a、optional-feature b、two-part c、by-product d、product line e、captive-product
19、the main advantage of co-branding is that a product may be convincingly positioned by virtue of the ________ involved. a、branding synergy b、increased advertising dollars c、multiple brands d、bundled package e、pure bundling
20、________ branding is a special case of co-branding involving creating brand equity for materials, components, or parts that are necessarily contained within other branded products. a、cross b、ingredient c、equity d、family e、generic
21、packaging includes all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product. this includes up to three levels of material: primary package, secondary package, and ________ package. a、retailer b、design c、shipping d、consumer e、supplier
22、________ are formal statements of expected product performance by the manufacturer. a、insurances b、warranties c、bonds d、invoices e、balance sheets
23、many sellers offer either general or specific guarantees. guarantees reduce the buyer's ________ risk. a、actual b、perceived c、real d、implied e、stated
24、guarantees are most effective in two situations. the first is when the company or products are not well known. the second is when the product's quality is ________ to competition. a、not known b、different c、inferior d、equivalent e、superior
25、which of the following is most closely related with the organic growth of an organization? a、acquiring a product or service brand b、entering new market places c、increasing the operational profitability d、increasing productivity of employees e、developing new products from within
26、most new-product activities are devoted to ________. a、changing the target markets b、developing new-to-the-world products c、introducing backward integration d、improving existing products e、changing the existing market dynamics
27、jordan's firm enters new markets by tweaking products for new customers, uses variations on a core product to stay one step ahead of the market, and creates interim solutions for industry-wide products. in other words, it pursues ________. a、disruptive technologies b、incremental innovation c、complex innovations d、discontinuous innovations e、radical innovations
28、which of the following methods for new-product development incorporates buyers' preferences in the final design of the product? a、quality function deployment b、market leadership c、cost leadership d、incremental innovation e、disruptive technology
29、a(n) ________ is an elaborated version of a product idea expressed in consumer terms. a、test brand b、alpha product c、beta product d、business schedule e、product concept
30、joseph, a student of columbia university, found that many of his classmates had purchased an ipad tablet from apple. several months after the product's launch, realizing that the ipad was widely considered to be useful and that many students in the united states had rated it highly, joseph also decided to purchase an ipad. which of the following is the adopter group to which joseph belongs? a、early adopter b、innovator c、late majority d、laggard e、early majority
chapter8 developing pricing strategies and programs
chapter 8 developing pricing strategies and programs
1、when consumers examine products, they often compare an observed price to an internal price they remember. this is known as a(n) ________ price. a、markup b、reference c、market-skimming d、accumulated e、target
2、which of the following would not be a consumer's reference price? a、the advertised price per month b、the actual future price c、a price the consumer remembers d、a posted "regular retail price" e、the manufacturer's suggested price
3、what would a consumer's lower price threshold signal? a、the use of everyday low pricing b、a discounted price for a high-value product c、a fair price d、a price below which the product is considered to be a good value e、a price below which the product is assumed to be of unacceptable quality
4、many consumers are willing to pay $100 for a perfume that contains $10 worth of scent because the perfume is from a well-known brand. what does this image pricing suggest about these consumers? a、they process prices from left to right. b、they use the price as an indicator of quality. c、they are rounding up the price. d、they are remembering an external frame of reference. e、they are breaking the price into smaller units.
5、prices that end in 9 are most appropriate when ________. a、customers have substantial knowledge about quality b、customers process prices right to left c、there is a mental price break at the lower, rounded price d、the marketer wants to suggest a discount or bargain e、the marketer wants to convey a high-price image
6、a firm that is plagued with overcapacity, intense competition, or changing consumer desires would do better if it pursues ________ as its major objective. a、market skimming b、product-quality leadership c、survival d、profit maximization e、market penetration
7、a market-penetration pricing strategy is most suitable when ________. a、a low price slows down market growth b、production and distribution costs fall with accumulated production experience c、a high price dissuades potential competitors from entering the market d、the market is characterized by inelastic demand e、a low price encourages actual competition
8、when apple introduced its iphone, it was priced at $599. this allowed apple to earn the maximum amount of revenue from the various segments of the market. two months after the introduction, the price had come down to $399. what kind of a pricing did apple adopt? a、loss-leader pricing b、market-penetration pricing c、market-skimming pricing d、target-return pricing e、value pricing
9、consumers are less price sensitive when ________. a、they buy high cost items b、they frequently change their buying habits c、there are more substitutes d、there are more competitors e、they do not readily notice higher prices
10、if demand hardly changes with a small change in price, the demand is said to be ________. a、strained b、marginal c、inelastic d、flexible e、unit elastic
11、j's hair salon pays overhead each month, including bills for rent, heat, interest, and salaries. these payments are examples of ________ costs. a、total b、average c、activity-based d、variable e、fixed
12、which of the following is true regarding price elasticity? a、the higher the elasticity, the lesser the volume growth resulting from a one-percent price reduction. b、long-run and short-run price elasticity may differ, delaying the impact of a price change. c、if demand is elastic, sellers assume that lowering the price will decrease total revenue. d、price elasticity does not depend on magnitude and direction of the contemplated price change. e、when demand is inelastic, sellers should lower prices in order to increase total revenue.
13、conagra foods decided its prices had risen too high, so it determined to set a lower price for its products. to make the new price level profitable, conagra cut $250 million in costs. what application of cost estimation did this represent? a、target costing b、experience-curve pricing c、ceiling pricing d、the learning curve e、promotional price elasticities
14、the decline in the average cost of production with accumulated production experience is called the ________. a、demand curve b、supply chain c、learning curve d、value chain e、indifference curve
15、which of the following is the most elementary pricing method? a、value pricing b、going-rate pricing c、markup pricing d、target-return pricing e、perceived-value pricing
16、despite its weaknesses, markup pricing remains popular for which of the following reasons? a、sellers can determine demand much more easily than they can estimate costs. b、by tying the price to cost, the pricing task becomes more sophisticated. c、when all firms in the industry use markup pricing, price competition flourishes. d、sellers take advantage of buyers when the latter's demand becomes acute. e、many people feel that cost-plus pricing is fairer to both buyers and sellers.
17、a manufacturer has invested $750,000 in a new product and wants to set a price to earn a 15 percent roi. the cost per unit is $18 and the company expects to sell 50,000 units in the first year. calculate the company's target-return price for this product. a、$18.10 b、$18.23 c、$20.25 d、$20.70 e、$25.50
18、an umbrella manufacturing company's fixed costs are $275,000. the variable cost per unit is $5 and each umbrella is sold at $10. how many units should the firm sell in order to break even? a、1,819 b、5,500 c、18,000 d、27,500 e、55,000
19、________ pricing takes into account a host of inputs, such as the buyer's image of the product performance, the channel deliverables, the warranty quality, customer support, and attributes such as the supplier's reputation, trustworthiness, and esteem. a、perceived-value b、value c、going-rate d、auction-type e、markup
20、matt's retail store offers all products at $2 less than its competitors. the store never runs promotional campaigns or offers special discounts. matt's retail store is following a(n) ________ pricing policy. a、auction-type b、target-plus c、everyday low d、high-low e、going-rate
21、everyday low pricing is most suitable if ________. a、consumers are willing to perform activities such as clip coupons to avail of discounts b、consumers tend to associate price with quality c、customers are insensitive to changes in price d、the cost of conducting frequent sales and promotions is high e、consumers have sufficient time to find the best prices
22、in ________ pricing, the firm bases its price largely on competitor's prices. a、going-rate b、auction-type c、markup d、target-return e、perceived-value
23、in which of the following auctions does the auctioneer first announce a high price for a product and then slowly decreases the price until a bidder accepts? a、a dutch auction with one buyer and many sellers b、an english auction with one seller and many buyers c、an ascending bid auction d、a sealed-bid auction e、a dutch auction with one seller and many buyers
24、________ auctions let would-be suppliers submit only one bid; they cannot know the other bids. a、descending bid b、sealed-bid c、english d、dutch e、reverse
25、in which of the following forms of countertrade do buyers and sellers directly exchange goods, with no money and no third party is involved? a、buyback arrangements b、offsets c、barter d、sealed bids e、compensation deals
26、a japanese firm is ready to sell its recent technological innovation to the u.s. government. but it has asked for 80 percent in cash and the rest in mica. the japanese firm is looking to enter into a(n) ________ with the u.s. government. a、functional discount b、compensation deal c、buyback arrangement d、offset agreement e、barter deal
27、roc engineering, a chinese shipbuilding company, agrees to build a fleet of submarines for the sri lankan navy, for which it will be paid in the local sri lankan currency. as per the agreement, roc must also spend a substantial amount of the money it generates through this deal within the country. in accordance with the contract, roc buys sri lankan tea at a reduced rate. this is an example of which of the following forms of countertrade? a、descending bid b、offset c、barter d、compensation deal e、buyback arrangement
28、________ are offered by a manufacturer to trade-channel members if they will perform certain functions, such as selling, storing, and record keeping. a、consumer promotions b、quantity discounts c、functional discounts d、seasonal discounts e、trade-in allowances
29、when hotels, motels, and airlines offer discounts in slow selling periods, they are said to be offering ________. a、trade discounts b、quantity discounts c、functional discounts d、seasonal discounts e、trade-in allowances
30、________ reward dealers for participating in advertising and sales support programs. a、functional discounts b、trade discounts c、promotional allowances d、rebates e、quantity discounts
31、when supermarkets and department stores drop the price on well-known brands to stimulate store traffic, they are said to be following ________ pricing. a、value b、loss-leader c、special event d、high-low e、everyday low
32、in ________, the seller charges a separate price to each customer depending on the intensity of his or her demand. a、second-degree price discrimination b、third-degree price discrimination c、psychological discounting d、special-customer pricing e、first-degree price discrimination
33、when museums charge a lower admission fee to students and senior citizens, this form of pricing is known as ________. a、perceived value pricing b、third-degree price discrimination c、first-degree price discrimination d、second-degree price discrimination e、psychological discounting
34、the airline and hospitality industries use ________, by which they offer discounted but limited early purchases, higher-priced late purchases, and the lowest rates on unsold inventory just before it expires. a、special-customer pricing b、yield pricing c、cash rebates d、location pricing e、customer-segment pricing
35、for price discrimination to work ________. a、the market must be segmentable and the segments must show similar intensities of demand b、members in the lower-price segment must be able to resell the product to the higher-price segment c、competitors must be able to undersell the firm in the higher-price segment d、the practice must not breed customer resentment and ill will e、the extra revenue derived from price discrimination must not exceed the cost of segmenting and policing the market
36、in a compensation deal, the seller sells a plant, equipment, or technology to another country and agrees to accept as partial payment products manufactured with the supplied equipment.
37、psychological discounting involves setting an artificially high price and then offering the product at substantial savings.
38、loss leader pricing dilutes a company's brand image.
39、in first-degree price discrimination, the seller charges less to buyers who purchase in larger volumes.
40、companies sometimes initiate price cuts in an attempt to dominate the market through lower costs.
41、consumers usually like price increases because these changes signal that an item is "hot" and represents a good value.
42、a company must consider the product's stage in the life cycle and its importance in the company's portfolio before responding to a competitor's price cut.
43、a firm in a homogeneous market that has the ability to augment its product is more likely to need to meet a competitive price reduction than one that does not have the ability to augment its product.
44、price is one of the two elements of the marketing mix that produces revenue.
45、today, consumers are price takers and accept prices at face value or as given.
46、customers usually have a lower price threshold below which prices signal inferior or unacceptable quality, as well as an upper price threshold above which prices are prohibitive and the product appears not worth the money.
47、although consumers may have fairly good knowledge of the range of prices involved, very few can accurately recall specific prices of products.
48、when examining products, consumers compare an observed price to an internal reference price they remember or an external frame of reference.
49、if firms wish to maximize their market share, they should opt for market-skimming pricing.
50、in the case of prestige goods, the demand curve sometimes slopes upward.
51、a marketer who has unit costs of $16 and wants to earn a 20 percent markup on sales would charge a markup price of $20.
52、price elasticity depends upon the magnitude and direction of the contemplated price change.
53、total costs consist of the sum of the fixed and the variable costs for any given level of production.
54、value pricing requires a company to reengineer its operations to become a low-cost producer.
55、in high-low pricing, retailers charge low prices on an everyday basis with occasional price increases.
chapter9 designing and managing integrated marketing communications
chapter 9 designing and managing integrated marketing communications
1、________ refers to the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers–directly or indirectly–about the products and brands they sell. a、human resource development b、marketing communications c、financial management d、operations management e、planning
2、which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix refers to any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor via print, broadcast, network, electronic, and display media? a、advertising b、personal selling c、sales promotion d、direct marketing e、public relations
3、which of the following is an example of a trade promotion? a、free samples b、discount coupons c、display allowances d、contests for sales reps e、premiums
4、________ refer to the marketing communications element that involves company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brand-related interactions with consumers. a、publicity campaigns b、trade promotions c、advertisements d、public relations e、events and experiences
5、which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix includes a variety of programs directed internally to employees of the company or externally to consumers, other firms, the government, and media to promote or protect a company's image or its individual product communications? a、direct marketing b、public relations and publicity c、personal selling d、advertising e、sales promotion
6、which of the following is an example of an advertising platform? a、posters and leaflets b、company magazines c、fairs and trade shows d、sales presentations e、continuity programs
7、which of the following is an example of a public relations and publicity communication platform? a、lobbying b、company museums c、street activities d、company blogs e、incentive programs
8、which of the following is an example of a word-of-mouth marketing communication platform? a、chat rooms b、billboards c、factory tours d、incentive programs e、trade shows
9、which of the following is an example of a personal selling communication platform? a、sales presentations b、company blogs c、telemarketing d、tv shopping e、press kits
10、which of the following factors found in the macromodel of the communications process refers to random and competing messages that may interfere with the intended communication? a) negative feedback a、negative feedback b、noise c、attenuation d、phase lag e、selective distortion
11、which of the following is the correct order of stages that a buyer is assumed to pass through, by the four classic response hierarchy models? a、cognitive stage—affective stage—behavioral stage b、affective stage—cognitive stage—behavioral stage c、behavioral stage—affective stage—cognitive stage d、cognitive stage—behavioral stage—affective stage e、affective stage—behavioral stage—cognitive stage
12、all response hierarchy models of the communication process assume the buyer passes through cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages, in that order. which of the following product categories lends itself most appropriately to such a "learn-feel-do" sequence? a、socks b、salt c、real estate d、gasoline for a car e、airline tickets
13、marketing communication strategy can be decided by conducting an image analysis, which profiles the target audience in terms of ________. a、brand knowledge b、purchase patterns c、demographic characteristics d、income levels e、psychographic characteristics
14、which of the following is the marketing communications objective for a new-to-the-world product, such as electric cars? a、enhancing brand awareness b、developing brand attitude c、increasing brand purchase intention d、encouraging repeat purchases e、establishing category need
15、which method for establishing the total marketing communications budget sets communication budgets to achieve the same amount of share-of-voice as competitors? a、comparative-parity method b、objective-and-task method c、affordable method d、competitive-parity method e、percentage-of-sales method
16、one of the possible objectives of marketing communications is helping consumers evaluate a brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need. which of the following is a negatively oriented relevant brand need? a、normal depletion b、sensory gratification c、social approval d、intellectual stimulation e、value enhancement
17、one of the possible objectives of marketing communications is helping consumers evaluate a brand's perceived ability to meet a currently relevant need. which of the following relevant brand needs is most likely emphasized by an advertisement for a luxury car? a、problem removal b、sensory gratification c、normal depletion d、intellectual stimulation e、problem avoidance
18、creative strategies refer to the ________. a、way marketers translate their messages into a specific communication b、amount of creative content in a communications message c、degree of innovation involved in the marketing of a product d、novelty of a marketing communication e、type of medium used to deliver a marketing communication
19、a(n) ________ appeal is a creative strategy that elaborates on product or service attributes or benefits. a、aesthetic b、informational c、bandwagon d、emotional e、transformational
20、which of the following ads depict a transformational appeal? a、thompson water seal can withstand intense rain, snow, and heat b、directv offers better hd options than cable or other satellite operators c、nba phenomenon lebron james pitching mcdonald's d、pringles slogan, "once you pop, the fun don't stop" e、aleve's message that it offers the longest-lasting pain relief
21、receivers of a message generally see a source as credible if they perceive the source to have expertise, trustworthiness, and ________. a、congruity b、"borrowed interest" devices c、likability d、appeals e、experience
22、personal influence in marketing communications carries great weight when the product being marketed ________. a、is a convenience item b、is considered to be safe and risk-free c、suggests something about the user's status or taste d、is purchased on a frequent basis e、is used without being recommended by others
23、which of the following is a disadvantage of using a percentage-of-sales method to determine the marketing communications budget? a、it assumes competitors know better than the company's own planners. b、it results in high communication expenditures irrespective of what the company can afford. c、it is overly focused on the relationship among communication cost, selling price, and profit per unit. d、it treats sales as what determines communication, rather than as the result of effective communication. e、it is too focused on long-range planning.
24、marketing communications budgets tend to be higher when conditions include ________. a、high channel support b、hardly any change in the marketing program over time c、products purchased infrequently and in large quantities d、differentiated products and nonhomogeneous customer needs e、easily reachable customers
25、qualities such as candor, humor, and naturalness make a spokesperson ________, which is an important component of spokesperson credibility. a、likable b、an expert c、trustworthy d、transformational e、informational
26、which of the following benefits is offered by sales promotion tools? a、sales promotion tools are more authentic and credible to buyers than advertising. b、sales promotion tools can reach prospects who prefer to avoid mass media. c、sales promotion tools are typically an indirect form of "soft-sell," so customers welcome them. d、sales promotion tools provide an incentive that gives value to the consumer. e、sales promotion tools allow buyers personal choices and encourage them to respond directly.
27、which of the following statements correctly reflects a characteristic of public relations as a marketing communications tool? a、public relations can reach prospects who prefer to avoid mass media and targeted promotions. b、they incorporate an incentive that gives value to the consumer. c、given their live, real-time quality, public relations tools are actively engaging for consumers. d、public relations communications can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual. e、public relations tools create an immediate, interactive episode between two or more persons.
28、which of the following statements is true of the role of advertising in business markets? a、advertising is unsuitable for explaining a product's features. b、business marketers tend to spend comparatively more on advertising. c、business buyers consider advertising inappropriate for reaching them. d、advertisements can legitimize the company and introduce its products. e、salespeople generate leads through personal selling and use advertising for follow-up.
29、which of the following marketing communications tools is most effective at influencing customers at the conviction stage of buyer readiness? a、advertising b、publicity c、sales promotion d、personal selling e、events and experiences
30、advertising and publicity tools play the most important roles in influencing buying decisions at the ________ stage of buyer readiness. a、comprehension b、conviction c、ordering d、reordering e、awareness-building
31、which of the following tools or combinations of tools is most influential at the comprehension stage of buyer readiness? a、sales promotion and advertising b、advertising and publicity c、publicity and personal selling d、reminder advertising and personal selling e、sales promotion and personal selling
32、which of the following marketing communications tools has the highest cost-effectiveness in the introduction stage of the product life cycle? a、personal selling b、sales promotion c、interactive marketing d、direct marketing e、events and experiences
33、which of the following marketing communications tools is most influential at the maturity stage of a product's life cycle? a、sales promotions b、sdirect marketing c、advertising d、publicity e、interactive marketing
34、luke is considering the various options available to him to promote an energy drink, turbozade, that has decreasing sales volumes after having peaked some time back. which of the following marketing communications tools should luke focus marketing efforts on to keep the sales volume up? a、advertising b、direct marketing c、events and experiences d、sales promotions e、publicity
35、which of the following marketing communications tools is most influential at the reordering stage of buyer readiness? a、events and experiences b、publicity c、direct marketing d、sales promotion e、interactive marketing
36、as ben manages communications for his company's watch brand, which has reached the decline stage in the product life cycle, which of the following marketing communications mix tools is he most likely to continue? a、interactive marketing b、advertising c、personal selling d、direct marketing e、sales promotion
37、stacey wants to use a highly relevant, engaging, and implicit communications mix mode to use a "soft sell" approach for her new makeup line. the communications mix mode that has these characteristics is ________. a、sales promotions b、events and experiences c、advertising d、direct and interactive marketing e、personal selling
38、which of the following is not one of the four important contributions an effectively trained company sales force can make to consumer marketing? a、remind end-consumers about the product b、increase stock position c、build enthusiasm d、conduct missionary selling e、manage key accounts
39、the most effective communications mix tool at later stages of the buying process is ________ because it is particularly effective at building buyer preference, conviction, and action. a、sales promotions b、personal selling c、advertising d、direct and interactive marketing e、events
40、________ refers to a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time. a、brand engagement b、integrated marketing communications c、market research d、customerization e、marketing research
41、marketing communications allow companies to link their brands to other people, places, events, brands, experiences, feelings, and things.
42、the rapid diffusion of multipurpose smart phones, broadband and wireless internet connections, and ad-skipping digital video recorders (dvrs) have augmented the effectiveness of the mass media.
43、marketing communications in almost every medium and form have been on the rise, and some consumers feel they are increasingly invasive.
44、in the new communication environment, advertising is often the single most important element of a marketing communications program for sales and building brand and customer equity.
45、personal selling refers to person-to-person oral, written, or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services.
46、marketers should assume that buyers will pass through the classic hierarchy of affective, cognitive, and behavioral stages, in that order.
47、a "do-feel-learn" response sequence is considered appropriate when the audience has high involvement but perceives little or no differentiation within the product category.
48、if a small iowa college builds awareness among applicants from nebraska, increases the target audience's knowledge about its offerings, communicates in a way that makes the target audience like it and prefer it to other colleges, builds intent to apply, and gets the target audience to attend, it is applying a do-feel-learn sequence.
49、if the coolest cooler introduced its cooler to the general market and developed communications around the idea that it was going to develop awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and then adoption, it would be anticipating a learn-feel-do sequence of consumer responses.
50、problem removal and normal depletion are examples of positively oriented relevant brand needs.
51、advertising can build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.
52、a drawback of public relations is that is does not reach prospects who prefer to avoid mass media and targeted promotions.
53、in general, personal selling is one of the most helpful tools for closing sales.
54、advertising and publicity play the most important roles in the conviction stage of buyer readiness.
55、in the growth stage of a product's life cycle, demand has its own momentum through word of mouth and interactive marketing.
chapter10 designing and managing integrated marketing channels
chapter 10 designing and managing integrated marketing channels
1、________ are sets of interdependent organizations participating in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. a、marketing channels b、interstitials c、communication channels d、sales territories e、marketing terrains
2、a manufacturer uses the company's sales force and trade promotions to carry, promote, and sell products to end users. which of the following strategies is this manufacturer using? a、personalization strategy b、tailoring strategy c、push strategy d、pull strategy e、consumer promotion strategy
3、spike inc. is a sportswear manufacturer that recently launched its new line of customizable running shoes. the shoes come with a digital component that allows them to adapt to the runner's biomechanics. to promote this new product, spike launches an advertising campaign and entices a famous athlete to endorse the product. this is an example of a ________. a、trade promotion b、reverse flow c、push strategy d、pull strategy e、backward flow
4、when is a pull strategy appropriate? a、when there is low brand loyalty b、when consumers are able to perceive differences between brands c、when brand choice is made in the store d、when it is a low involvement purchase e、when the product is an impulse item
5、using the push strategy is most appropriate when ________. a、consumers are able to perceive differences between brands b、the product being sold is an impulse item c、there is high brand loyalty for the product d、the product is a high involvement purchase e、consumers choose the brand before they go to the store
6、a computer manufacturing company allows customers to shop in their preferred way. for example, they can gather information online or in the store; they can place orders online or by phone or purchase in a store. they can have orders delivered to their home or arrange to pick them up from a convenient retail location. which of the following terms best represents this practice? a、omnichannel marketing b、mass customization c、online personalization d、push strategy e、internal marketing
7、which of the following is the most accurate description of a value network? a、a system of partnerships and alliances that a firm creates to source, augment, and deliver its offerings b、a system of organizations and resources involved in moving a product from supplier to customer c、an arrangement whereby an organization transforms inputs into finished goods d、a network that allows an organization to take the finished products to the end-users e、a communication network that allows an organization to transfer information to end-customers
8、companies should first think about the target market and then design the supply chain backward from that point. this strategy is called ________ planning. a、demand chain b、resource c、external channel d、materials e、strategic business
9、which of the following channel functions constitute only a backward flow? a、movement of physical goods b、placing orders with suppliers c、persuasive communication d、storage of physical goods e、overseeing actual transfer of ownership
10、identify the channel function that constitutes both backward and forward flow. a、obtaining financing b、storage of physical goods c、persuasive communication d、movement of physical goods e、overseeing actual transfer of ownership
11、producers often shift some functions to intermediaries. which of the following is the most significant benefit of doing this? a、it increases customer loyalty. b、it provides the producer with greater control over operations. c、it reduces the amount of direct customer interaction. d、it lowers the producer's costs and prices. e、it ensures greater information security.
12、which of the following is an example of a zero-level channel? a、a manufacturer takes online orders from customers and ships the products to them. b、an organization uses a combination of direct salespeople and sales agencies to increase sales. c、a manufacturer sells its products through wholesalers and retailers. d、a manufacturer sells its products through chains of supermarkets and other large sellers. e、a large company forms alliances with smaller companies to increase sales coverage.
13、door-to-door sales, home parties, mail order, telemarketing, tv selling, internet selling, and manufacturer-owned stores are examples of ________. door-to-door sales, home parties, mail order, telemarketing, tv selling, internet selling, and manufacturer-owned stores are examples of ________. a、zero-level channels b、jobbers c、wholesalers d、manufacturer's representatives e、consumers
14、which of the following activities is a reverse-flow channel of marketing? a、raw materials movement b、product recycling c、materials ordering d、finished goods storage e、customer order placement
15、toyota has an advantage over lexus due to the fact that there are more toyota dealers, which helps customers save on transportation and search costs in buying and repairing an automobile. which of the following service outputs relates to this competitive advantage? a、spatial convenience b、service backup c、lot size d、waiting time e、delivery time
16、atburex is a furniture manufacturing company in the united states. the company provides a 60-day credit period and also offers on-site delivery and installation. these special benefits refer to which of the following service outputs? a、service backup b、large product variety c、spatial convenience d、large lot size e、short waiting time
17、which of the following types of distribution involves severely limiting the number of channel intermediaries? a、exclusive b、selective c、intensive d、aggressive e、retail
18、exclusive dealing arrangements are mainly used by companies looking for an edge in markets increasingly driven by ________. a、price b、efficiency c、product variety d、add-on services e、spatial convenience
19、electrobar, a european manufacturer of industrial kitchenware, sells to industrial canteens, restaurants, hotels, and so forth. the company provides a one-year warranty on all products and also allows customers to pay in installments—they pay 50 percent on delivery and the rest as equal installments. this refers to which element in the "trade-relations mix"? a、price policy b、conditions of sale c、distributors' territorial rights d、exclusive dealings e、mutual services and responsibilities
20、which marketing channel is associated with the highest value added per sale? a、retail stores b、sales force c、distributors d、internet e、telemarketing
21、in many cases, retailers hold greater ________ than manufacturers, so manufacturers need to know retail buyers' acceptance criteria. a、channel power b、conditions of sale c、territorial rights d、motivation e、channel design
22、a new firm typically starts as a local operation selling in a fairly circumscribed market by ________. a、finding and developing new intermediaries b、using a few existing intermediaries c、forming partnerships with the market leader d、creating a special channel e、forming partnerships with other firms
23、which of the following is not a standard that producers would use to evaluate intermediaries' performance? a、sales-quota attainment b、average inventory levels c、modification of channel design d、customer delivery time e、cooperation in promotional programs
24、a producer must modify its channel design and arrangements if ________. a、consumer buying patterns change b、the competition in the market stabilizes c、the product is in the growth stage of its life cycle d、the market size remains unchanged for a particular period e、the firm's profits stabilize
25、what is the major difference between a conventional marketing channel and a vertical marketing system (vms)? a、elements in a conventional marketing channel act as separate businesses whereas the elements in a vms act as a unified system. b、a vms has many intermediaries whereas a conventional marketing channel has a limited number of intermediaries. c、a vms is characterized by an independent producer whereas a conventional marketing channel is characterized by multiple producers. d、a conventional marketing channel has elements such as retailers and wholesalers whereas these elements are not present in a vms. e、producers have complete control over the other members in a conventional marketing channel whereas this control is minimal in a vms.
26、a(n) ________ vertical marketing system combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership. a、corporate b、administered c、contractual d、regulatory e、controlled
27、rotter garder inc. is a large-scale paint manufacturer known for its wide range of decorative paint products and industrial coatings. in addition to making paints, the company also owns and operates the retail stores that sell its products. this is an example of a(n) ________ vertical marketing system. a、administered b、contractual c、referent d、corporate e、regulated
28、a group of small sellers takes the initiative and organizes a new business entity to carry on wholesaling and possibly some production. this entity is called a(n) ________. a、retailer cooperative b、franchise organization c、area-based cartel d、sponsored voluntary chain e、alternate selling channel
29、in a ________ marketing system, two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity. a、reverse flow b、vertical c、horizontal d、lateral e、forward flow
30、alcart solutions is a large distributor of aldor phones in canada. the company distributes products to various retailers in the new brunswick province. recently aldor received several complaints from its retailers that their orders are not delivered on time. this is an example of ________ conflict. a、multichannel b、horizontal c、vertical d、intermediate e、parallel
31、when goodyear began selling its popular tire brands through sears, walmart, and discount tire, independent dealers that sold the same tires at higher prices were angry. this is an example of a(n) ________ conflict. a、horizontal b、vertical c、intermediate d、multichannel e、parallel
32、a manufacturer wants to achieve rapid market penetration through a low-price policy. however, the manufacturer's dealers prefer to work with high margins and pursue short-run profitability. the major reason for this conflict is ________. a、goal incompatibility b、unclear roles c、ambiguous rights d、differences in perception e、dependence on the manufacturer
33、winstar is a large-scale manufacturer with more than a hundred partners across the globe. when making decisions concerning distribution and channel optimization, the company invites members from its channel partners to be part of its advisory committee. this helps the company maintain harmony with its partners. which of the following conflict resolution techniques is winstar using? a、diplomatic counselling b、mediation c、arbitration d、co-optation e、joint membership
34、which of the following channel conflict resolution techniques is used only if everything else proves ineffective? a、legal recourse b、mediation c、arbitration d、co-option e、superordinate goals
35、when japanese teenagers carry mobile phones from ntt and use them to order goods, they are engaged in ________. a、b2b ecommerce b、brick-and-click commerce c、infomediation d、dilution e、m-commerce
36、marketing channels are the set of pathways a product or service follows after production, culminating in purchase and consumption by the final end user.
37、a pull strategy is particularly appropriate when there is low brand loyalty in a category, brand choice is made in the store, the product is an impulse item, and product benefits are well understood.
38、companies should first think of the target market and then design the supply chain backward from that point. this strategy is called demand chain planning.
39、a marketing channel overcomes the time, place, and possession gaps that separate goods and services from those who need or want them.
40、marketing channel functions such as storage and movement and communications constitute a backward flow of activities.
41、all functions in a marketing channel use up scarce resources and can be shifted among channel members.
42、the flow of materials to refurbish products for resale constitutes a reverse flow.
43、an intensive distribution strategy serves well for products such as snack foods and soft drinks.
44、manufacturers can obtain greater control over the selling process by using a sales agency.
45、after a company has chosen a channel system, it must select, train, motivate, and evaluate individual intermediaries for each channel.
46、channel power is the ability to alter channel members' behavior so that they take actions they would not have taken otherwise.
47、a corporate vertical marketing system combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership.
48、multichannel conflicts are common when the members of one channel obtain a lower price based on larger-volume purchases.
49、exclusive dealings and tying agreements are illegal and prohibited by law.
50、manufacturers that add online channels may avoid alienating retailers or other intermediaries by offering different brands or products through online channels than in stores.
1、linda was buying all her groceries from home needs supermarket for the past 5 years. she recently came across the convenience store, another supermarket just a few miles away from her place and started buying her groceries from them. linda can be best described as a(n) ________. a、split loyal b、shifting loyal c、hard-core loyal d、switcher
2、the result of positioning is the successful creation of ________, which provides a cogent reason why the target market should buy the product. a、an award-winning promotional campaign b、a customer-focused value proposition c、a demand channel d、everyday low pricing
3、with respect to powerful brand elements, ________ is an extremely efficient means to build brand equity. this element functions as a useful "hook" to help consumers grasp what the brand is and what makes it special. a、the tangibility of a product b、a product's shape c、a slogan d、a patent
4、a customer judges a product offering by three basic elements: product features and quality, services mix and quality, and ________. a、performance b、utility c、tangibility d、price
5、when apple introduced its iphone, it was priced at $599. this allowed apple to earn the maximum amount of revenue from the various segments of the market. two months after the introduction, the price had come down to $399. what kind of a pricing did apple adopt? a、loss-leader pricing b、market-penetration pricing c、market-skimming pricing d、target-return pricing
6、spike inc. is a sportswear manufacturer that recently launched its new line of customizable running shoes. the shoes come with a digital component that allows them to adapt to the runner's biomechanics. to promote this new product, spike launches an advertising campaign and entices a famous athlete to endorse the product. this is an example of a ________. a、trade promotion b、reverse flow c、push strategy d、pull strategy
7、which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix refers to any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor via print, broadcast, network, electronic, and display media? a、advertising b、personal selling c、sales promotion d、direct marketing
8、in ________ marketing, the firm ignores segment differences and goes after the whole market with one offer. a、niche b、mass c、guerrilla d、segmented
9、a brand must demonstrate ________, for it to function as a true point-of-difference. a、clear superiority of an attribute or benefit b、clear profitability to the company c、clear similarity to the attributes of other brands d、technological advances for an attribute or benefit
10、an umbrella manufacturing company's fixed costs are $275,000. the variable cost per unit is $5 and each umbrella is sold at $10. how many units should the firm sell in order to break even? a、1,819 b、5,500 c、18,000 d、55,000
11、mothers-to-be are potential users who will turn into heavy users of infant products and services. by targeting mothers-to-be as future heavy users, producers of these products and services are segmenting consumers on the basis of ________. a、attitude b、buyer-readiness stage. c、loyalty status d、user status
12、perdue's cogent reason why a target market should buy its chicken is "more tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price," also known as its ________. a、customer-focused value proposition b、competitive frame of reference c、points-of-parity d、straddle positioning
13、when a marketer expresses his or her vision of what a brand must be and do for consumers, he or she is expressing what is called a brand ________. a、promise b、personality c、identity d、position
14、marketers must see themselves as benefit providers. for example, when a shopper purchases new shoes, he or she expects the shoes to cover his or her feet and allow him or her to walk unobstructed. this is an example of what level in the consumer-value hierarchy? a、pure tangible good b、basic product c、augmented product d、potential product
15、many consumers are willing to pay $100 for a perfume that contains $10 worth of scent because the perfume is from a well-known brand. what kind of pricing is the company depending on? a、going-rate pricing b、image pricing c、market-skimming pricing d、target pricing
16、when is a pull strategy appropriate? a、when there is low brand loyalty b、when consumers are able to perceive differences between brands c、when brand choice is made in the store d、when it is a low involvement purchase
17、which of the following elements of the marketing communications mix involves a variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service? a、advertising b、direct marketing c、sales promotion d、public relations
18、marketers usually identify niches by ________. a、dividing a segment into subsegments b、allowing consumers to gravitate toward product brands c、examining the demographics section of the handbook of marketing d、producing products that can be used in a variety of ways
19、the two basic forms of points-of-parity are ________ points-of-parity and ________ points-of-parity. a、conceptual; competitive b、strategic; conceptual c、category; deliverable d、category; competitive
20、________ pricing takes into account a host of inputs, such as the buyer's image of the product performance, the channel deliverables, the warranty quality, customer support, and attributes such as the supplier's reputation, trustworthiness, and esteem. a、perceived-value b、value c、going-rate d、auction-type
21、with respect to loyalty status, if a consumer is loyal to two or three brands, he or she is called shifting loyal.
22、a company is more likely to be hurt by current competitors than by emerging competitors or new technologies.
23、to achieve integrated marketing, marketers need a variety of different marketing activities that consistently reinforce the brand promise.
24、companies normally develop product lines rather than a single product and introduce price steps such as a low-, average-, and high-priced computer system.
25、when sony introduced the first high-definition television to the japanese market in 1990, it was priced at $43,000, which is an example of partial-cost recovery pricing.
26、marketing channel functions such as storage and movement and communications constitute a backward flow of activities.
27、advertising allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various competitors.
28、people in the same demographic group generally exhibit similar psychographic profiles.
29、while creating a loyal brand community is useful for large companies, it is not cost-effective for small firms.
30、in first-degree price discrimination, the seller charges less to buyers who purchase in larger volumes.
31、demographic variables are popular because they are often associated with consumer needs and wants and they are easy to measure.
32、positioning requires that marketers define and communicate only the differences between their brand and its competitors.
33、the quantity, rather than quality, of a marketer's investment in brand building is the critical factor in building brand equity.
34、the four product-mix dimensions (length, width, depth, consistency) permit the company to expand its business.
35、a marketer who has unit costs of $16 and wants to earn a 20 percent markup on sales would charge a markup price of $20.
36、companies should first think of the target market and then design the supply chain backward from that point. this strategy is called demand chain planning.
37、advertising and publicity play the most important roles in the conviction stage of buyer readiness.
38、psychographics is the science of using psychology and demographics to better understand consumers.
39、brand mantras are typically designed to capture the brand's points-of-parity, that is, what is unique about the brand.
40、when firms charge different prices to different customer groups for the same product or service, it is a case of second-degree price discrimination.
1、1. a market segment 2.meters bonwe is a china-based casual wear company that provides fashionable garments for young consumers. the company price its products obviously lower than competitors. for instance, a pair of meters bonwe jeans is priced at ￥199, which is much lower than￥799 of a pair of ordinary levi’s jeans. however, meters bonwe is closing its physical stores because of shrinking sales volume as levi’s remains a very admired brand in chinese market. this can be explained with some marketing concepts. choose one of them and write down its definition. 3. a vertical marketing system 4. sales promotion
2、1. it is important to note that having a large brand portfolio means confronting higher risks because when acompany usemulti-brands in the same market, competition between these brands will only harm the company. cost control is another key problem here. but this seems not a problem for the world’s leading consumer goods producer procter & gamble company (p&g). the company has successfully filled multiple market segments to maximize relevance to the consumer. an example is its diversified shampoo brands: head & shoulders provides dandruff control, pantene promotes nutrition for healthy hair, and sassoon aims to provide a professional salon experience, herbal essences’ large variety of exhilarating fragrances and natural ingredients transforms a simple hair wash into an outstanding and pleasurable experience. why does p&g use multi-brands on shampoo? how did p&g avoid internal competition between its shampoo brands? 2.list product levels.
3、1. how do you define samsung, huawei and xiaomi’s roles in the android phone industry? 2. how do you define samsung, huawei and xiaomi’s pricing strategies for their flagship phones?